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Sökning: WFRF:(Andersson Emil)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 63
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1.
  • Andersson, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Internet-Based Extinction Therapy for Worry : A Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Behavior Therapy. - : ASSOC ADV BEHAVIOR THERAPY. - 0005-7894 .- 1878-1888. ; 48:3, s. 391-402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Worry is a common phenotype in both psychiatric patients and the normal population. Worry can be seen as a covert behavior with primary function to avoid aversive emotional experiences. Our research group has developed a treatment protocol based on an operant model of worry, where we use exposure -based strategies to extinguish the catastrophic worry thoughts. The aim of this study was to test this treatment delivered via the Internet in a large-scale randomized controlled trial. We randomized 140 high-worriers [PSWQ]) to either Internet-based extinction therapy (IbET) or to a waiting-list condition (WL). Results showed that IbET was superior to WL with an overall large between-group effect size of d 1.39 (95% confidence interval [1.04,1.73]) on the PSWQ. In the IbET group, 58% were classified as responders. The corresponding figure for WL participants was 7%. IbET was also superior to the WL on secondary outcome measures of anxiety, depression, meta-cognitions, cognitive avoidance, and quality of life. Overall treatment results were maintained for the IbET group at 4- and 12-month follow-up. The results from this trial are encouraging as they indicate that worry can be targeted with an accessible and novel intervention for worry. Replication trials with active control group are needed.
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2.
  • Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • Restricted cortical and amygdaloid removal of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 in preadolescent mice impacts dopaminergic activity and neuronal circuitry of higher brain function.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. - : Society for Neuroscience. - 1529-2401 .- 0270-6474. ; 29:7, s. 2238-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A major challenge in neuroscience is to resolve the connection between gene functionality, neuronal circuits, and behavior. Most, if not all, neuronal circuits of the adult brain contain a glutamatergic component, the nature of which has been difficult to assess because of the vast cellular abundance of glutamate. In this study, we wanted to determine the role of a restricted subpopulation of glutamatergic neurons within the forebrain, the Vglut2-expressing neurons, in neuronal circuitry of higher brain function. Vglut2 expression was selectively deleted in the cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala of preadolescent mice, which resulted in increased locomotor activity, altered social dominance and risk assessment, decreased sensorimotor gating, and impaired long-term spatial memory. Presynaptic VGLUT2-positive terminals were lost in the cortex, striatum, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus, and a downstream effect on dopamine binding site availability in the striatum was evident. A connection between the induced late-onset, chronic reduction of glutamatergic neurotransmission and dopamine signaling within the circuitry was further substantiated by a partial attenuation of the deficits in sensorimotor gating by the dopamine-stabilizing antipsychotic drug aripiprazole and an increased sensitivity to amphetamine. Somewhat surprisingly, given the restricted expression of Vglut2 in regions responsible for higher brain function, our analyses show that VGLUT2-mediated neurotransmission is required for certain aspects of cognitive, emotional, and social behavior. The present study provides support for the existence of a neurocircuitry that connects changes in VGLUT2-mediated neurotransmission to alterations in the dopaminergic system with schizophrenia-like behavioral deficits as a major outcome.
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3.
  • Hesser, Hugo, et al. (författare)
  • Consequences of Controlling Background Sounds : The Effect of Experiential Avoidance on Tinnitus Interference
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Rehabilitation Psychology. - : American Psychological Association (APA). - 0090-5550 .- 1939-1544. ; 54:4, s. 381-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Masking by the use of sounds has been one of the most commonly applied means of coping with tinnitus. The ability to control auditory stimulation represents a potentially important process involved in tinnitus masking strategies. Little is, however, known about the consequences of control on tinnitus experience. The present study investigated the effects of control of background sounds (type and loudness) on perceived intrusiveness of tinnitus and cognitive performance. Design: Using an experimental design with a series of trials, participants with clinically significant tinnitus (N = 35) were randomly assigned to I of 2 experimental manipulation conditions (control of sounds vs. no control of sounds). Measures: Self-reported tinnitus interference and the Digit-Symbol subtest served as dependent measures. Results: Latent growth curve modeling showed that individuals assigned to the condition with control exhibited faster growth rates on tinnitus interference (increased interference) and demonstrated slower rates of improvement on cognitive performance measures over trials compared to individuals assigned to the condition with no control. Conclusion: These results suggest that efforts to control tinnitus through sounds can be associated with increased disability in individuals with tinnitus.
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4.
  • Puschmann, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Low prevalence of known pathogenic mutations in dominant PD genes: A Swedish multicenter study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. - : Elsevier. - 1353-8020 .- 1873-5126. ; 66, s. 158-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 The Authors Objective: To determine the frequency of mutations known to cause autosomal dominant Parkinson disease (PD) in a series with more than 10% of Sweden's estimated number of PD patients. Methods: The Swedish Parkinson Disease Genetics Network was formed as a national multicenter consortium of clinical researchers who together have access to DNA from a total of 2,206 PD patients; 85.4% were from population-based studies. Samples were analyzed centrally for known pathogenic mutations in SNCA (duplications/triplications, p.Ala30Pro, p.Ala53Thr) and LRRK2 (p.Asn1437His, p.Arg1441His, p.Tyr1699Cys, p.Gly2019Ser, p.Ile2020Thr). We compared the frequency of these mutations in Swedish patients with published PD series and the gnomAD database. Results: A family history of PD in first- and/or second-degree relatives was reported by 21.6% of participants. Twelve patients (0.54%) carried LRRK2 p.(Gly2019Ser) mutations, one patient (0.045%) an SNCA duplication. The frequency of LRRK2 p.(Gly2019Ser) carriers was 0.11% in a matched Swedish control cohort and a similar 0.098% in total gnomAD, but there was a marked difference between ethnicities in gnomAD, with 42-fold higher frequency among Ashkenazi Jews than all others combined. Conclusions: In relative terms, the LRRK2 p.(Gly2019Ser) variant is the most frequent mutation among Swedish or international PD patients, and in gnomAD. SNCA duplications were the second most common of the mutations examined. In absolute terms, however, these known pathogenic variants in dominant PD genes are generally very rare and can only explain a minute fraction of familial aggregation of PD. Additional genetic and environmental mechanisms may explain the frequent co-occurrence of PD in close relatives.
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5.
  • Tzortzatos, G., et al. (författare)
  • The gynecological surveillance of women with Lynch Syndrome in Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - : ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. - 0090-8258 .- 1095-6859. ; 138:3, s. 717-722
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Women with Lynch syndrome (LS) have up to a 60% lifetime risk of endometrial cancer (EC) and up to a 24% risk of ovarian cancer (OC). Gynecological surveillance is recommended, but the benefit and how it should be performed remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess diagnostic modalities for gynecological screening of LS patients in Sweden and clinical outcome. Methods. A retrospective nationwide study of 170 women with molecularly confirmed LS. Data including gynecological LS screening history, biopsy results (if any), genetic records, number of screening visits, results from screening including transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS), endometrial biopsy (EB), blood test for tumor marker cancer antigen (CA) 125, prophylactic surgery including age at procedure, and setting from which screening data were obtained from medical records. Results. A total of 117 women were eligible for gynecological screening and of these, 86 patients attended screening visits. Of these, 41 underwent prophylactic hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Two patients (4.9%) were diagnosed with EC and two (4.9%) with precancerous lesions in conjunction with prophylactic surgery. Total incidence of gynecological cancer in the surveillance group (45 women) was 20% EC, 4% OC. Five patients had endometrial cancer or complex hyperplasia with atypia (n = 2) detected by endometrial biopsy. Four additional cases were detected due to interval bleeding. Both cases of ovarian cancer were detected by transvaginal ultrasound in patients with ovarian cysts under surveillance. The youngest woman with endometrial cancer was diagnosed at 35 years of age, before she was aware of her diagnosis of Lynch syndrome. Conclusions. Gynecological surveillance of women with Lynch syndrome may lead to earlier detection of precancerous lesions, which might have some impact on the morbidity from endometrial cancer although further studies are needed to prove this. Prophylactic hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy reduces the cancer incidence. A practical approach to surveillance in Lynch syndrome women would be to offer annual surveillance beginning at age 30 years including probably both TVUS and EB in order to increase diagnostic yield with prospective data registry for follow-up studies. Prophylactic surgery could be performed at a suitable age after childbearing to obtain a balance between reducing the risk of cancer and minimizing long-term complications from premature menopause.
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6.
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7.
  • Andersson, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Low pericyte coverage of endometrial microvessels in heavy menstrual bleeding correlates with the microvessel expression of VEGF-A.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Molecular Medicine. - : D.A. Spandidos. - 1791-244X. ; 35:2, s. 433-438
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A prospective clinical study was carried out to investigate whether endometrial microvessels in patients with idiopathic heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) of endometrial origin (HMB-E) are fragile due to low pericyte coverage. Idiopathic HMB-E is characterized by large endothelial cell gaps related to the microvascular overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF receptors 1-3. A total of 10 women with a normal menstrual cycle and a history of HMB of <5 years, and 17 healthy women with a normal menstrual cycle were recruited from the Karolinska University Hospital. Blood samples were obtained for hormone analysis and coagulation tests. Endometrial biopsies were collected in the proliferative or in the secretory phase. Pericyte coverage was assessed using immunohistochemical staining for smooth muscle actin-α (SMAα) and by image analysis (microvascular density) of endometrial biopsies from 10 patients with HMB-E and 17 healthy ovulating women (control subjects). Previously published data on endothelial cell gap size and the expression of VEGF receptors were used. Although microvascular density did not differ between the patients with HMB-E and the control subjects, the number of SMAα-positive microvessels in the proliferative phase was significantly (P=0.005) lower in the patients with HMB-E than in the control subjects. Moreover, the number of SMAα-positive microvessels in the control subjects was significantly fewer in the secretory (P=0.04) than in the proliferative phase, whereas this number did not differ among the patients with HMB-E regardless of phase. A significant negative correlation was observed between the number of VEGF-A-positive microvessels and microvessels with pericyte coverage (r=0.8; P=0.04). Finally, the endothelial cell layer was significantly thicker in the patients with HMB-E than in the control subjects. Thus, the upregulation of VEGF-A in idiopathic HMB-E is associated with a low pericyte coverage during the proliferative phase of intense angiogenesis, which may confer vessel fragility, possibly leading to excessive blood loss.
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8.
  • Ansari, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Single-institution experience with solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1502-7708. ; 46:12, s. 1492-1497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Objective. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare clinical entity. The objective of this study was to review a single institution's experience with this uncommon tumor, as well as review the literature. Material and Methods. Consecutive patients, who underwent surgery for a pathologically confirmed SPN between 1991 and 2010, were retrospectively reviewed. A PubMed search (January 1980-June 2011) was conducted to identify risk factors for death among SPN patients. Results. The institutional review identified 16 patients with SPN. Thirteen patients were female and three patients were male (median age 34 years). All patients underwent radical resection. Two patients had metastatic disease at the time of operation as evident by the presence of lymph node metastasis and gallbladder metastasis. One developed liver metastasis 4 months postoperatively and subsequently died. The other patient received adjuvant chemotherapy (gemcitabine and capecitabine), and 23 months after the initial operation, no tumor recurrence was detected and the patient is still alive. All other patients remain disease-free. Analysis of 29 fatalities reported in the English literature (including the present case) revealed several atypical features including male gender, old age, tumor size >5 cm, diffuse growth pattern, cellular or nuclear atypia, high mitotic rate, extensive necrosis, extrapancreatic invasion, metastasis and incomplete resection. Conclusions. SPN is not always indolent. Male patients and those with old age, atypical histopathology (large tumors, diffuse growth, cellular/nuclear atypia, mitotic activity, necrosis, invasion/metastasis) and incomplete resection may have a higher risk of recurrence and death, deserving particular attention.
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9.
  • Dalin, Martin G., et al. (författare)
  • Massive parallel sequencing questions the pathogenic role of missense variants in dilated cardiomyopathy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cardiology. - 0167-5273 .- 1874-1754. ; 228, s. 742-748
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Germline genetic variants are an important cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, recent sequencing studies have revealed rare variants in DCM-associated genes also in individuals without known heart disease. In this study, we investigate variant prevalence and genotype-phenotype correlations in Swedish DCM patients, and compare their genetic variants to those detected in reference cohorts. Methods and results: We sequenced the coding regions of 41 DCM-associated genes in 176 unrelated patients with idiopathic DCM and found 102 protein-altering variants with an allele frequency of <0.04% in reference cohorts; the majority were missense variants not previously described in DCM. Fifty-five (31%) patients had one variant, and 24 (14%) patients had two or more variants in the analysed genes. Detection of genetic variants in any gene, and in LMNA, MYII7 or TTN alone, was associated with early onset disease and reduced transplant-free survival. As expected, nonsense and frameshift variants were more common in DCM patients than in healthy individuals of the reference cohort 1000 Genomes Europeans. Surprisingly however, the prevalence, conservation and pathogenicity scores, and localization of missense variants were similar in DCM patients and healthy reference individuals. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify correlations between genotype and prognosis when sequencing a large number of genes in unselected DCM patients. The similar distribution of missense variants in DCM patients and healthy reference individuals questions the pathogenic role of many variants, and suggests that results from genetic testing of DCM patients should be interpreted with caution.
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10.
  • David, Jennifer, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Design and Development of a Hexacopter for the Search and Rescue of a Lost Drone
  • 2019
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Search and rescue with an autonomous robot is an attractive and challenging task within the research community. This paper presents the development of an autonomous hexacopter that is designed for retrieving a lost object, like a drone, from a vast-open space, like a desert area. Navigating its path with a proposed coverage path planning strategy, the hexacopter can efficiently search for a lost target and locate it using an image-based object detection algorithm. Moreover, after the target is located, our hexacopter can grasp it with a customised gripper and transport it back to a destined location. It is also capable of avoiding static obstacles and dynamic objects. The proposed system was realised in simulations before implementing it in a real hardware setup, i.e. assembly of the drone, crafting of the gripper, software implementation and testing under real-world scenarios. The designed hexacopter won the best UAV design award at the CPS-VO 2018 Competition held in Arizona, USA.
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