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  • Ljungman, Petter L S, et al. (författare)
  • Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution, Black Carbon, and Their Source Components in Relation to Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - Durham : National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 127:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but few studies have considered incident disease in relation to PM from different sources.OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study associations between long-term exposure to different types of PM and sources, and incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in three Swedish cities.METHODS: ), and black carbon (BC) from road wear, traffic exhaust, residential heating, and other sources in Gothenburg, Stockholm, and Umeå. Registry data for participants from four cohorts were used to obtain incidence of IHD and stroke for first hospitalization or death. We constructed time windows of exposure for same-year, 1- to 5-y, and 6- to 10-y averages preceding incidence from annual averages at residential addresses. Risk estimates were based on random effects meta-analyses of cohort-specific Cox proportional hazard models.RESULTS: exposure from residential heating.DISCUSSION: Few consistent associations were observed between different particulate components and IHD or stroke. However, long-term residential exposure to locally emitted BC from traffic exhaust was associated with stroke incidence. The comparatively low exposure levels may have contributed to the paucity of associations.
  • Al-Anati, Lauy, et al. (författare)
  • Hydroxyl metabolite of PCB 180 induces DNA damage signaling and enhances the DNA damaging effect of benzo[a]pyrene
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Chemico-Biological Interactions. - : Elsevier. - 0009-2797 .- 1872-7786. ; 239, s. 164-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxyl metabolites (OH-PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in human tissues and blood. The toxicological impact of these metabolites is poorly understood. In this study rats were exposed to ultrapure PCB180 (10-1000 mg/kg bw) for 28 days and induction of genotoxic stress in liver was investigated. DNA damage signaling proteins (pChk1Ser317 and gamma H2AXSer319) were increased dose dependently in female rats. This increase was paralleled by increasing levels of the metabolite 3'-OH-PCB180. pChk1 was the most sensitive marker. In in vitro studies HepG2 cells were exposed to 1 mu M of PCB180 and 3'-OH-PCB180 or the positive control benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 5 mu M). 3'-OH-PCB180, but not PCB180, induced CYP1A1 mRNA and gamma H2AX. CYP1A1 mRNA induction was seen at 1 h, and gamma H2AX at 3 h. The anti-oxidant N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) completely prevented, and 17 beta-estradiol amplified the gamma H2AX induction by 3'-OH-PCB180. As 3'-OH-PCB180 induced CYP1A1, a major BaP-metabolizing and activating enzyme, interactions between 3'-OH-PCB180 and BaP was also studied. The metabolite amplified the DNA damage signaling response to BaP. In conclusion, metabolism of PCB180 to its hydroxyl metabolite and the subsequent induction of CYP1A1 seem important for DNA damage induced by PCB180 in vivo. Amplification of the response with estradiol may explain why DNA damage was only seen in female rats.
  • Andersson, Patrik U, 1970, et al. (författare)
  • Formation of Highly Rovibrationally Excited Ammonia from Dissociative Recombination of NH4
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1948-7185. ; 1:17, s. 2519-2523
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The internal energy distribution of ammonia formed in the dissociative recombination (DR) of NH4+ with electrons has been studied by an imaging technique at the ion storage ring CRYRING. The DR process resulted in the formation of NH3 + H (0.90 ± 0.01), with minor contributions from channels producing NH2 + H2 (0.05 ± 0.01) and NH2 + 2H (0.04 ± 0.02). The formed NH3 molecules were highly internally excited, with a mean rovibrational energy of 3.3 ± 0.4 eV, which corresponds to 70% of the energy released in the neutralization process. The internal energy distribution was semiquantitatively reproduced by ab initio direct dynamics simulations, and the calculations suggested that the NH3 molecules are highly vibrationally excited while rotational excitation is limited. The high internal excitation and the translational energy of NH3 and H will influence their subsequent reactivity, an aspect that should be taken into account when developing detailed models of the interstellar medium and ammonia-containing plasmas.
  • Bergknut, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of potentially toxic compounds in complex extracts of environmental samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. - New York : Pergamon. - 0730-7268 .- 1552-8618. ; 26:2, s. 208-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, we examined 31 samples of varying chemical composition, including samples of soils from gasworks, coke production sites, and sites where wood preservatives were heavily used; ash and soot from municipal solid waste incinerators; antiskid sand; and dust from areas with heavy road traffic. The samples were comprehensively chemically characterized, especially their polycyclic aromatic compound contents, using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whereas their biological effects were assessed using dehydrogenase activity, root growth (Hordeum vulgare), reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida), algal growth (Desmodesmus subspicatus), germinability (Sinapis alba), Vibrio fischeri, DR-CALUX, and Ames Salmonella assays. The number of compounds detected in the samples ranged from 123 to 527. Using the multivariate regression technique of partial-least-squares projections to latent structures, it was possible to find individual compounds that exhibited strong correlations with the different biological responses. Some of the results, however, indicate that a broader chemical characterization may be needed to identify all the compounds that may cause the measured biological responses.
  • Sundström, Johan, Professor, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for subarachnoid haemorrhage : a nationwide cohort of 950 000 adults.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 48:6, s. 2018-2025
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, with high mortality rate and substantial disability among survivors. Its causes are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate risk factors for SAH using a novel nationwide cohort consortium.METHODS: We obtained individual participant data of 949 683 persons (330 334 women) between 25 and 90 years old, with no history of SAH at baseline, from 21 population-based cohorts. Outcomes were obtained from the Swedish Patient and Causes of Death Registries.RESULTS: During 13 704 959 person-years of follow-up, 2659 cases of first-ever fatal or non-fatal SAH occurred, with an age-standardized incidence rate of 9.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) (7.4-10.6)/100 000 person-years] in men and 13.8 [(11.4-16.2)/100 000 person-years] in women. The incidence rate increased exponentially with higher age. In multivariable-adjusted Poisson models, marked sex interactions for current smoking and body mass index (BMI) were observed. Current smoking conferred a rate ratio (RR) of 2.24 (95% CI 1.95-2.57) in women and 1.62 (1.47-1.79) in men. One standard deviation higher BMI was associated with an RR of 0.86 (0.81-0.92) in women and 1.02 (0.96-1.08) in men. Higher blood pressure and lower education level were also associated with higher risk of SAH.CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SAH is 45% higher in women than in men, with substantial sex differences in risk factor strengths. In particular, a markedly stronger adverse effect of smoking in women may motivate targeted public health initiatives.
  • Tang, Z., et al. (författare)
  • Interlayer for Modified Cathode in Highly Efficient Inverted ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Advanced Materials. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0935-9648 .- 1521-4095. ; 24:4, s. 554-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inverted polymer solar cells with a bottom metal cathode modified by a conjugated polymer interlayer show considerable improvement of photocurrent and fill factor, which is due to hole blocking at the interlayer, and a modified surface energy which affects the nanostructure in the TQ1/[70]PCBM blend.
  • Viluksela, Matti, et al. (författare)
  • Toxicological profile of ultrapure 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in adult rats.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 9:8, s. e104639-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total doses of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 1700 mg PCB 180/kg body weight by gavage. Dose-responses were analyzed using benchmark dose modeling based on dose and adipose tissue PCB concentrations. Body weight gain was retarded at 1700 mg/kg during loading dosing, but recovered thereafter. The most sensitive endpoint of toxicity that was used for risk characterization was altered open field behavior in females; i.e. increased activity and distance moved in the inner zone of an open field suggesting altered emotional responses to unfamiliar environment and impaired behavioral inhibition. Other dose-dependent changes included decreased serum thyroid hormones with associated histopathological changes, altered tissue retinoid levels, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, decreased follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in males and increased expression of DNA damage markers in liver of females. Dose-dependent hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was observed in adrenals suggesting activation of cortex. There were gender differences in sensitivity and toxicity profiles were partly different in males and females. PCB 180 adipose tissue concentrations were clearly above the general human population levels, but close to the levels in highly exposed populations. The results demonstrate a distinct toxicological profile of PCB 180 with lack of dioxin-like properties required for assignment of WHO toxic equivalency factor. However, PCB 180 shares several toxicological targets with dioxin-like compounds emphasizing the potential for interactions.
  • Winkler, Thomas W, et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 11:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.
  • Andersson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Microarray-based classification of a consecutive series of 121 childhood acute leukemias: prediction of leukemic and genetic subtype as well as of minimal residual disease status.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Leukemia. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5551 .- 0887-6924. ; 21:6, s. 1198-1203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gene expression analyses were performed on 121 consecutive childhood leukemias (87 B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs), 11 T-cell ALLs and 23 acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs)), investigated during an 8-year period at a single center. The supervised learning algorithm k-nearest neighbor was utilized to build gene expression predictors that could classify the ALLs/AMLs according to clinically important subtypes with high accuracy. Validation experiments in an independent data set verified the high prediction accuracies of our classifiers. B-lineage ALLs with uncharacteristic cytogenetic aberrations or with a normal karyotype displayed heterogeneous gene expression profiles, resulting in low prediction accuracies. Minimal residual disease status (MRD) in T-cell ALLs with a high (40.1%) MRD at day 29 could be classified with 100% accuracy already at the time of diagnosis. In pediatric leukemias with uncharacteristic cytogenetic aberrations or with a normal karyotype, unsupervised analysis identified two novel subgroups: one consisting mainly of cases remaining in complete remission (CR) and one containing a few patients in CR and all but one of the patients who relapsed. This study of a consecutive series of childhood leukemias confirms and extends further previous reports demonstrating that global gene expression profiling provides a valuable tool for genetic and clinical classification of childhood leukemias.
  • Andersson, Patrik B. U., et al. (författare)
  • Boundary Element Method for Intensity Potential Approach : Predicting the Radiated Sound Power from Partially Enclosed Noise Sources
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica. - : S. Hirzel Verlag. - 1610-1928 .- 1861-9959. ; 98:4, s. 588-599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper proposes the boundary element method for the intensity potential for prediction of high-frequency sound power flow through partial enclosures. The intensity potential approach is based on the local power balance in a lossless medium and the Helmholtz decomposition of the vector field of time-averaged sound intensity. The result is a Poisson equation for a scalar intensity potential. The intensity potential formulation and the boundary element method are both suitable for exterior problems. The governing equations of the intensity potential and the boundary element method for solving this problem are presented. Results from the proposed method are compared with experimental results, for the case of radiated sound power in one-third-octave bands from sources in a partial enclosure. The results show that the method is applicable for estimation of global radiated sound power in one-third-octave bands in the high-frequency range.
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