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1.
  • Davies, G., et al. (författare)
  • Study of 300,486 individuals identifies 148 independent genetic loci influencing general cognitive function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • General cognitive function is a prominent and relatively stable human trait that is associated with many important life outcomes. We combine cognitive and genetic data from the CHARGE and COGENT consortia, and UK Biobank (total N = 300,486; age 16-102) and find 148 genome-wide significant independent loci (P < 5 × 10-8) associated with general cognitive function. Within the novel genetic loci are variants associated with neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, physical and psychiatric illnesses, and brain structure. Gene-based analyses find 709 genes associated with general cognitive function. Expression levels across the cortex are associated with general cognitive function. Using polygenic scores, up to 4.3% of variance in general cognitive function is predicted in independent samples. We detect significant genetic overlap between general cognitive function, reaction time, and many health variables including eyesight, hypertension, and longevity. In conclusion we identify novel genetic loci and pathways contributing to the heritability of general cognitive function.
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3.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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4.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • d-amino acid oxidase activator gene (DAOA) variation affects cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy Caucasians
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. - 0940-1334 .- 1433-8491. ; 262:7, s. 549-556
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The d-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) protein regulates the function of d-amino oxidase (DAO), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of d-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (D-DOPA) and d-serine. D-DOPA is converted to l-3,4-DOPA, a precursor of dopamine, whereas d-serine participates in glutamatergic transmission. We hypothesized that DAOA polymorphisms are associated with dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline turnover in the human brain. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms, previously reported to be associated with schizophrenia, were genotyped. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were drawn by lumbar puncture, and the concentrations of the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and the major noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were measured. Two of the investigated polymorphisms, rs3918342 and rs1421292, were significantly associated with CSF HVA concentrations. Rs3918342 was found to be nominally associated with CSF 5-HIAA concentrations. None of the polymorphisms were significantly associated with MHPG concentrations. Our results indicate that DAOA gene variation affects dopamine turnover in healthy individuals, suggesting that disturbed dopamine turnover is a possible mechanism behind the observed associations between genetic variation in DAOA and behavioral phenotypes in humans.
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5.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • Dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 gene (DTNBP1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - 0924-977X .- 1873-7862. ; 21:9, s. 700-704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dystrobrevin binding protein-1 (DTNBP1) gene encodes dysbindin-1, a protein involved in neurodevelopmental and neurochemical processes related mainly to the monoamine dopamine. We investigated possible associations between eleven DTNBP1 polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and the major noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy human subjects (n=132). Two polymorphisms, rs2619538 and rs760666, were nominally associated with CSF HVA and 5-HIAA concentrations, whereas a third polymorphism, rs909706, showed association only with HVA. After correction for multiple testing only the associations between rs2619538 and HVA and 5-HIAA concentrations remained significant. No significant association was found between any of the investigated DTNBP1 polymorphisms and CSF MHPG concentrations. The results suggest that genetic variation in DTNBP1 gene affects the regulation of dopamine and serotonin turnover in the central nervous system of healthy volunteers.
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6.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • Tryptophan hydroxylase gene 1 (TPH1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - 0165-1781 .- 1872-7123. ; 180:2-3, s. 63-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis. We investigated possible relationships between five TPH1 gene polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the major norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy volunteers (n = 132). The G-allele of the TPH1 rs4537731 (A-6526G) polymorphism was associated with 5-HIM and HVA, but not MHPG concentrations. None of the other four TPH1 polymorphisms (rs211105, rs1800532, rs1799913 and rs7933505) were significantly associated with any of the monoamine metabolite concentrations. Two (rs4537731G/rs211105T/rs1800532C/rs1799913C/rs7933505G and rs4537731A/rs211105T/rs1800532C/rs1799913C/rs7933505G) of five common TPH1 five-allele haplotypes were associated with 5-HIAA and HVA concentrations in opposite directions. None of the common haplotypes was associated with MHPG concentrations in the CSF. The results suggest that TPH1 gene variation participates in the regulation of serotonin and dopamine turnover rates in the central nervous system of healthy human subjects.
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8.
  • Bauer, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempts in bipolar I disorder.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of psychiatric research. - 1879-1379. ; 113, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many international studies, rates of completed suicide and suicide attempts have a seasonal pattern that peaks in spring or summer. This exploratory study investigated the association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempt in patients with bipolar I disorder. Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun striking a surface area on Earth. Data were collected previously from 5536 patients with bipolar I disorder at 50 collection sites in 32 countries at a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres. Suicide related data were available for 3365 patients from 310 onset locations in 51 countries. 1047 (31.1%) had a history of suicide attempt. There was a significant inverse association between a history of suicide attempt and the ratio of mean winter solar insolation/mean summer solar insolation. This ratio is smallest near the poles where the winter insolation is very small compared to the summer insolation. This ratio is largest near the equator where there is relatively little variation in the insolation over the year. Other variables in the model that were positively associated with suicide attempt were being female, a history of alcohol or substance abuse, and being in a younger birth cohort. Living in a country with a state-sponsored religion decreased the association. (All estimated coefficients p < 0.01). In summary, living in locations with large changes in solar insolation between winter and summer may be associated with increased suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Further investigation of the impacts of solar insolation on the course of bipolar disorder is needed.
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9.
  • Bauer, M., et al. (författare)
  • Solar insolation in springtime influences age of onset of bipolar I disorder
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 0001-690X .- 1600-0447. ; 136:6, s. 571-582
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To confirm prior findings that the larger the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation in springtime, the younger the age of onset of bipolar disorder. Method: Data were collected from 5536 patients at 50 sites in 32 countries on six continents. Onset occurred at 456 locations in 57 countries. Variables included solar insolation, birth-cohort, family history, polarity of first episode and country physician density. Results: There was a significant, inverse association between the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation at the onset location, and the age of onset. This effect was reduced in those without a family history of mood disorders and with a first episode of mania rather than depression. The maximum monthly increase occurred in springtime. The youngest birth-cohort had the youngest age of onset. All prior relationships were confirmed using both the entire sample, and only the youngest birth-cohort (all estimated coefficients P < 0.001). Conclusion: A large increase in springtime solar insolation may impact the onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood disorders. Recent societal changes that affect light exposure (LED lighting, mobile devices backlit with LEDs) may influence adaptability to a springtime circadian challenge.
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10.
  • Brandt, Christine Lycke, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive effort and schizophrenia modulate large-scale functional brain connectivity
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia Bulletin. - 0586-7614 .- 1745-1701. ; 41:6, s. 1360-1369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia (SZ) is characterized by cognitive dysfunction and disorganized thought, in addition to hallucinations and delusions, and is regarded a disorder of brain connectivity. Recent efforts have been made to characterize the underlying brain network organization and interactions. However, to which degree connectivity alterations in SZ vary across different levels of cognitive effort is unknown. Utilizing independent component analysis (ICA) and methods for delineating functional connectivity measures from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we investigated the effects of cognitive effort, SZ and their interactions on between-network functional connectivity during 2 levels of cognitive load in a large and well-characterized sample of SZ patients (n = 99) and healthy individuals (n = 143). Cognitive load influenced a majority of the functional connections, including but not limited to fronto-parietal and default-mode networks, reflecting both decreases and increases in between-network synchronization. Reduced connectivity in SZ was identified in 2 large-scale functional connections across load conditions, with a particular involvement of an insular network. The results document an important role of interactions between insular, default-mode, and visual networks in SZ pathophysiology. The interplay between brain networks was robustly modulated by cognitive effort, but the reduced functional connectivity in SZ, primarily related to an insular network, was independent of cognitive load, indicating a relatively general brain network-level dysfunction.
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