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1.
  • Henstrom, M., et al. (författare)
  • Functional variants in the sucrase-isomaltase gene associate with increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 67:2, s. 263-270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective IBS is a common gut disorder of uncertain pathogenesis. Among other factors, genetics and certain foods are proposed to contribute. Congenital sucraseisomaltase deficiency (CSID) is a rare genetic form of disaccharide malabsorption characterised by diarrhoea, abdominal pain and bloating, which are features common to IBS. We tested sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene variants for their potential relevance in IBS. Design We sequenced SI exons in seven familial cases, and screened four CSID mutations (p.Val557Gly, p. Gly1073Asp, p.Arg1124Ter and p.Phe1745Cys) and a common SI coding polymorphism (p.Val15Phe) in a multicentre cohort of 1887 cases and controls. We studied the effect of the 15Val to 15Phe substitution on SI function in vitro. We analysed p.Val15Phe genotype in relation to IBS status, stool frequency and faecal microbiota composition in 250 individuals from the general population. Results CSID mutations were more common in patients than asymptomatic controls (p=0.074; OR=1.84) and Exome Aggregation Consortium reference sequenced individuals (p=0.020; OR=1.57). 15Phe was detected in 6/7 sequenced familial cases, and increased IBS risk in case-control and population-based cohorts, with best evidence for diarrhoea phenotypes (combined p=0.00012; OR=1.36). In the population-based sample, 15Phe allele dosage correlated with stool frequency (p=0.026) and Parabacteroides faecal microbiota abundance (p=0.0024). The SI protein with 15Phe exhibited 35% reduced enzymatic activity in vitro compared with 15Val (p<0.05). Conclusions SI gene variants coding for disaccharidases with defective or reduced enzymatic activity predispose to IBS. This may help the identification of individuals at risk, and contribute to personalising treatment options in a subset of patients.
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2.
  • Kurilshikov, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analyses identify host factors influencing human gut microbiome composition
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 53:2, s. 156-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide association study of host genetic variation regarding microbial taxa identified 31 loci affecting the microbiome at a genome-wide significant (P < 5 x 10(-8)) threshold. One locus, the lactase (LCT) gene locus, reached study-wide significance (genome-wide association study signal: P = 1.28 x 10(-20)), and it showed an age-dependent association with Bifidobacterium abundance. Other associations were suggestive (1.95 x 10(-10) < P < 5 x 10(-8)) but enriched for taxa showing high heritability and for genes expressed in the intestine and brain. A phenome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization identified enrichment of microbiome trait loci in the metabolic, nutrition and environment domains and suggested the microbiome might have causal effects in ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.
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3.
  • Mattsson, Niklas, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced cerebrospinal fluid BACE1 activity in multiple sclerosis.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England). - : SAGE Publications. - 1352-4585. ; 15:4, s. 448-454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cell and animal experiments have shown that beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) may be involved in myelination. OBJECTIVE: Here, we assess the association of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) BACE1 activity with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: BACE1 activity and levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid-beta (Abeta) isoforms were analyzed in CSF from 100 patients with MS and 114 neurologically healthy controls. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 26 with and 41 without cerebral engagement, were also included to enable comparisons with regards to another autoimmune disease. A subset of patients with MS and controls underwent a second lumbar puncture after 10 years. RESULTS: MS patients had lower CSF BACE1 activity than controls (P = 0.03) and patients with cerebral SLE (P < 0.001). Patients with cerebral SLE had higher BACE1 activity than any other group (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). BACE1 activity correlated with the different amyloid markers in all study groups. BACE1 activity decreased over 10 years in the MS group (P = 0.039) and correlated weakly with clinical disease severity scores in an inverse manner. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest an involvement of BACE1 in the MS disease process.
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4.
  • Teär Fahnehjelm, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Most patients with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency develop pathological or subnormal retinal function
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 105:12, s. 1451-1460
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: There have been few studies on long-term electroretinographic findings in patients with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD). This study correlated long-term electroretinographic findings with age, metabolic control and clinical symptoms. Methods: We examined 12 Swedish patients with LCHADD. Visual acuity testing, fundus examinations, optical coherence tomography and electroretinography were performed. The results were correlated to age, the levels of 3-hydroxyacylcarnitine and acylcarnitine and clinical metabolic control. Results: Blindness or moderate visual impairment was found in two patients. Retinal pigmentation, atrophy and fibrosis were present in 11, seven and one of the patients, respectively, and optical coherence tomography showed retinal thinning in three of the six patients examined. Electroretinography was performed on 11 of the 12 patients. It was pathological, with reduced rod and cone responses, in five patients, subnormal in four and was related to poor clinical metabolic control and severe neonatal symptoms. Repeated electroretinographies revealed reduced function with increasing age. Conclusion: More than 80% of the LCHADD patients developed pathological or subnormal retinal function. This was more pronounced in patients with neonatal symptoms, but ameliorated by strict dietary treatment. Annual ophthalmological follow-ups, with electroretinography every second or third year, are recommended.
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5.
  • Andréasson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of molecular targets associated with transformed diffuse large B cell lymphoma using highly purified tumor cells
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Hematology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0361-8609 .- 1096-8652. ; 84:12, s. 803-808
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Follicular lymphoma (FL) frequently transforms into the more aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL-tr), but no protein biomarkers have been identified for predictive or early diagnosis. Gene expression analyses have identified genes changing on transformation but have failed to be reproducible in different studies, reflecting the heterogeneity within the tumor tissue and between tumor samples. Gene expression analyses on Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays were performed, using flow cytometry sorted tumor cells derived from FL and transformed DLBCL. To identify molecular targets associated with the transformation, subsequent immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses of the corresponding proteins were performed. Using highly purified cells, this study identified 163 genes, which were significantly deregulated during the transformation in a majority of cases. Among the upregulated transcripts, 13 genes were selected for validation using IHC, based on the availability of commercial antibodies, and galectin-3 and NEK2 proteins specifically identify DLBCL-tr, when compared with FL. We demonstrate that by purifying tumor cells through cell sorting, thereby reducing the heterogeneity due to infiltrating cells, it was possible to identify distinct differences between tumor entities rather than variations due to cellular composition. Galectin-3 and NEK2 both identified a subgroup of DLBCL-tr, and the function of these protein markers also suggests a biological role in the transformation process.
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6.
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7.
  • Magnusson, Gunilla, 1968, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of screening procedures for congenital cataracts.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 92:12, s. 1468-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of two different Swedish screening procedures for early detection of congenital cataracts in comparison with no screening. METHODS: Children born between January 1992 and December 1998 in Swedish regions with an established eye-screening routine procedure, diagnosed with congenital cataract, and operated on before 1 y of age, were included in a retrospective study. Age at referral and age at time of the operation were compared between regions using different screening procedures: screening in the maternity wards (Region 1), at the well-baby clinics (Region 2) and one region without any screening (Region 3). RESULTS: Seventy-two children were included in the study. Concerning early diagnosis and surgery, Region 1 differed significantly from Regions 2 and 3, which were more similar and were combined for further analysis. The difference in detected cases was greatest at 21 d of age (55% vs 18%; p < 0.001), but persisted even at 100 d of age (78% vs 64%; p < 0.02). Region 1 screening resulted in more and earlier cases detected than the other two regions (22 vs 15 per 100,000 births). In 72% of all cases, surgery was performed in response to referrals from either the maternity wards (36%), or the well-baby clinics (36%). However, half of the cases from the well-baby clinics were detected too late, i.e. at > 100 d. CONCLUSION: Eye screening in the maternity ward is preferable to well-baby clinic screening and to no screening at all, since it leads to early detection. Screening should also be performed routinely at well-baby clinics within the period when successful treatment is possible.
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8.
  • Parnetti, L, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in CSF acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase activity after long-term treatment with AChE inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Acta neurologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0404. ; 124:2, s. 122-129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives - To measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) participating in randomized clinical trials from three European centers, before and after long-term treatment with different AChE inhibitors (AChEIs). Materials and methods - Of the 144 patients included in the study, 104 were treated with donepezil, 15 with galantamine, 16 with rivastigmine, and nine with placebo. CSF AChE and BChE activities were measured at baseline and after 1- year treatment. Results - Donepezil and galantamine groups showed a significant increase in CSF AChE activity at follow-up, while no changes for BChE activity were observed; in donepezil group, a positive correlation between plasma concentration and AChE activity was documented. Conversely, in rivastigmine group, a decrease in CSF activity of both enzymes was observed. CSF AChE and BChE activities were not correlated with the clinical outcome in any group considered. CSF biomarkers did not show any change after treatment. Conclusions - AChEIs differently influence the activity of target enzymes in CSF independent of their pharmacodynamic effects.
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9.
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10.
  • Abadei, Saeed, 1961, et al. (författare)
  • Microwave properties of tunable capacitors basee on magnetron sputtered ferroelectric Na0.5K0.5NbO3 film on low and high resistivity silicon substrates
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Integrated Ferroelectrics. - 1058-4587 .- 1607-8489. ; 39:1-4, s. 359-366
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work, small signal DC voltage dependent dielectric permittivity, loss tangent, and tuneability of magnetron sputtered epitaxial Na0.5K0.5NO3 films are studied experimentally. (100)-oriented Na0.5K0.5NbO3 films are deposited onto SiO2-buffered CMOS grade low resistivity (p = 10–20 Ωcm) and high resistivity (p = 15–45 kΩcm) silicon substrates. Planar capacitors with 2 or 4 μm gaps between electrodes have been fabricated on top of ferroelectric films. These devices have been characterized in the frequency range 1.0 MHz to 50 GHz at temperatures 30 – 300K. Na0.5K0.5NbO3/SiO2/Si structures on high resistivity silicon substrate exhibit C-V performances typical for Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) capacitors. At low frequencies, f
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