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1.
2.
  • Anund, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The alerting effect of hitting a rumble strip : a simulator study with sleepy drivers.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - 0001-4575 .- 1879-2057. ; 40:6, s. 1970-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A moving base driving simulator experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of milled rumble strips on driver fatigue. There were rumble strips both at the edge line and centre line. Four different physical designs of milled rumble strips (yielding noise values from 1.5 to 16 dBA) and two placements on shoulder were used in the experiment. Sound and vibrations from real milled rumble strips were reproduced in the simulator. In total 35 regular shift workers drove during the morning hours after a full night shift. The main results showed an increase in sleepiness indicators (EEG alpha/theta activity, eye closure duration, standard deviation of lateral position, subjective sleepiness) from start to before hitting the rumble strip, an alerting effect in most parameters (not subjective sleepiness) after hitting the strip. The alertness enhancing effect was, however, short and the sleepiness signs returned 5 min after the rumble strip hit. Essentially no effects were seen due to type of strip. It was concluded that various aspects of sleepiness are increased before hitting a rumble strip and that the effect is very short-lived. Type of strip, as used in the present study did not have any effect.</p>
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3.
  • Anund, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The alerting effect of hitting a rumble strip--a simulator study with sleepy drivers.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Accid Anal Prev. - 1879-2057. ; 40:6, s. 1970-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The alerting effect of hitting a rumble strip--a simulator study with sleepy drivers.</p><p>Anund A, Kecklund G, Vadeby A, Hjälmdahl M, Akerstedt T.</p><p>Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-177 71 Stockholm, Sweden. anna.anund@vti.se</p><p>A moving base driving simulator experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of milled rumble strips on driver fatigue. There were rumble strips both at the edge line and centre line. Four different physical designs of milled rumble strips (yielding noise values from 1.5 to 16 dBA) and two placements on shoulder were used in the experiment. Sound and vibrations from real milled rumble strips were reproduced in the simulator. In total 35 regular shift workers drove during the morning hours after a full night shift. The main results showed an increase in sleepiness indicators (EEG alpha/theta activity, eye closure duration, standard deviation of lateral position, subjective sleepiness) from start to before hitting the rumble strip, an alerting effect in most parameters (not subjective sleepiness) after hitting the strip. The alertness enhancing effect was, however, short and the sleepiness signs returned 5 min after the rumble strip hit. Essentially no effects were seen due to type of strip. It was concluded that various aspects of sleepiness are increased before hitting a rumble strip and that the effect is very short-lived. Type of strip, as used in the present study did not have any effect.</p>
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4.
  • Anund, A, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss: a driving simulator study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Industrial Health. - 0019-8366 .- 1880-8026. ; 47:4, s. 393-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night awake. 17 participants drove a high fidelity moving base driving simulator experiment while sleepiness was monitored physiologically and behaviourally. Short periods of situations of free driving (no other vehicles) alternated with short periods of following another vehicle (car following) with and without the possibility to overtake. The result showed that a night of prior sleep loss increased sleepiness levels at the wheel (eye closure duration and lateral variability) compared to after a night of normal sleep. Blink duration while overtaking was significantly lower compared to the other situations, it was at the same level as after night sleep. Speed when passing a stopped school bus was not significantly affected by sleepiness. However the warning caused a more rapid reduction of speed. In conclusion, a moderately challenging driving contest did not affect sleepiness indicators, but a very challenging one did so (overtaking). This suggests that it is important to monitor the driving situation in field operational tests of sleepy driving.
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5.
  • Falkmer, Torbjörn, et al. (författare)
  • Säkerhet och trygghet i samband med skolskjuts ur barnens perspektiv
  • 2006
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>School transportation should be safe, secure and accessible for all children entitled to such transportation, regardless of any disability. On a daily basis, 440,000 children utilise school transportation, several thousands of them having some sort of disability. Laws, rules and regulations concerning school transportation do not take the children's perspective into account. Moreover, they do not explicitly define where and when a school transport actually starts and ends. For these reasons, more knowledge was needed in order to fully understand why school transportation incidents take place. The aim of the project was thus to describe and understand children's (with and without disabilities) thoughts and experiences concerning safety and security in school transportation, from a "door-to-door" perspective. The number of individuals affected by school transportation incidents is, luckily, limited in relative terms, and quantitative methods do not fully catch the reasons behind children's involvement in these incidents. Instead, qualitative approaches have been applied, gaining a rich and deeper insight into the problems studied. In order to get as broad and full picture as possible, the project was divided into four subprojects: 1. Focus groups with children, drivers, staff and parents. 2. Interviews with children suffering from neuropsychiatric disabilities. 3. Interviews with children involved in school transportation incidents. 4. Field observations and interviews with children who are in extensive need for technical aids.</p>
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6.
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7.
  • Niska, Anna, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Cykling bland barn och unga en kunskapssammanställning
  • 2017
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Cyklandet bland barn och unga har minskat, vilket får negativa effekter på hälsa och barns självständiga mobilitet. VTI har i detta regeringsuppdrag sammanställt kunskap om tänkbara orsaker till detta, baserat på litteraturstudier och kontakter med relevanta aktörer samt analyser av resvanedata och olycksstatisk. Statistiken visar att det är andelen personer som cyklar som minskat medan den cyklade sträckan inte förändrats. Framförallt har barns och ungas fritidscyklande minskat, vilket kan förklaras av ökade avstånd till fritidsaktiviteter, föräldrars heltidsarbete och att barns vardag idag är mer institutionaliserat. Även cyklandet till skolan har minskat, bland annat då det fria skolvalet lett till ökade avstånd. Andra orsaker är fler bilar i hushållen, förändringar i hur barn leker och kommunicerar, bristande faktisk och upplevd säkerhet och trygghet i kombination med föräldrars förställningar om barns trafikförmåga. Cykelresorna har delvis ersatts av bilresor men framförallt av ett ökat gående och resande med kollektivtrafik. Cyklingen har minskar mest bland de äldre barnen. Då de främst ersatt sitt resande med kollektivtrafik, kan en förklaring vara att fler erbjuds gratis busskort. Det finns ett stort engagemang och kompetens kring barns och ungas cykling bland olika aktörer, men behovet är stort av ökad samordning och att de initiativ och åtgärder som vidtas utvärderas systematiskt.</p>
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8.
  • Sandberg, D, et al. (författare)
  • Detecting driver sleeepiness using optimized non-linear combinations of sleepiness indicators
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. - 1524-9050. ; 12:1, s. 97-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses the problem of detecting sleepiness in car drivers. First, a variety of sleepiness indicators (based on driving behavior) proposed in the literature were evaluated. These indicators were then subjected to parametric optimization using stochastic optimization methods. To improve performance, the functional form of some of the indicators was generalized before optimization. Next, using a neural network, the best performing sleepiness indicators were combined with a mathematical model of sleepiness, i.e., the sleep/wake predictor (SWP). The analyses were based on data obtained from a study that involved 12 test subjects at the moving-base driving simulator at the Swedish National Road and Transportation Research Institute (VTI), Linkping, Sweden. The data were derived from 12 1-h driving sessions for each test subject, with varying degrees of sleepiness. The performance measure (range [0,1]) for indicators was taken as the average of sensitivity and specificity. Starting with indicators proposed in the literature, the best such indicator, i.e., the standard deviation of the yaw angle, reached a performance score of 0.72 on previously unseen test data. It was found that indicators based on a given signal gave essentially equal performance after parametric optimization, but in no case was it better than 0.72. The best generalized indicator (the generic variability indicator) obtained a performance score of 0.74. SWP achieved a score of 0.78. However, by nonlinearly combining SWP with the generic variability indicator, a score of 0.83 was obtained. Thus, the results imply that a nonlinear combination of a measure based on driving behavior with a model of sleepiness significantly improves driver sleepiness detection.
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9.
  • Sjörs Dahlman, Anna, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Utvärdering av trötthetsvarningssystem i buss
  • 2020
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Tidigare studier har visat att det är vanligt att bussförare i kollektivtrafik får kämpa för att hålla sig vakna flera gånger i månaden. Det finns i dagsläget tekniska system för att detektera trötthet hos förare men hur denna typ av system påverkar och uppfattas av bussförare är inte känt. Syftet med studien var att utvärdera effekten av ett trötthetsvarningssystem i långfärdsbussar. Studien omfattar två delstudier; en enkätstudie och en utvärdering av trötthetsvarningssystemet med bussförare på väg. Enkätstudien visade att de faktorer som upplevs som mest tröttande var att köra på natten, oregelbundna arbets- och sovtider och delade arbetspass/lång tid sedan rast. Det var 29% av förarna som uppgav att de behövde kämpa för att hålla sig vakna när de kör buss 2-4 ggr/ månad eller oftare. Datainsamlingen på väg visade att självskattad sömnighet var något lägre under körningar med trötthetsvarningssystemet aktivt. Trötthetsvarningssystemets loggar av trötthetshändelser samt förarnas rapporter av varningar som tagits emot stämde inte överens med deras upplevda trötthet. Förarna var överlag positiva till trötthetsvarningssystemet men lyfte fram att systemet behöver bli mer tillförlitligt.</p>
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10.
  • Vadeby, Anna, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness and acceptability of milled rumble strips on rural two-lane roads in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Transport Research Review. - Springer. - 1867-0717 .- 1866-8887. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: The study sought to estimate the effects of centreline milled rumble strips on rural two-lane roads in Sweden in a wide perspective. Traffic safety effects (i.e., fewer crashes and injuries), driver experience, and driver opinions of centreline milled rumble strip usage on rural roads are investigated.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: To evaluate the traffic safety effects, an Empirical Bayes study comparing the outcome before and-after the introduction of rumble strips was conducted. This study is based on data from 2003–2012 from the Swedish national traffic accident database, STRADA. To capture driver experience and opinions about milled centreline rumble strips, focus groups and road-side interviews were performed.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: The results indicate a significant decrease in all types of severe injury crashes, a 20% (±13%) reduction in the number of fatalities and seriously injured people (all crash types) and a 27% (±18%) reduction in the number of fatalities and severely injured people in single-vehicle crashes. Participants in focus groups and road-side interviews generally favoured centreline rumble strips on rural roads, and up to 90% of the interviewed motorcyclists and commuters stated that the rumble strips would help improve traffic safety.</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Rumble strips in the centre of two-lane rural roads are a countermeasure to help drivers who are unintentionally about to leave the lane, for example, due to sleepiness or inattention. Based on the results of this study, installing centreline milled rumble strips on two-lane rural roads 8–10 meters wide is a measure to consider to increase safety.</p>
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