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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Arbiser Jack) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Arbiser Jack)

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1.
  • Arbiser, Jack L., et al. (författare)
  • Functional tyrosine kinase inhibitor profiling : a generally applicable method points to a novel role of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta in tuberous sclerosis
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Pathology. - 0002-9440 .- 1525-2191. ; 161:3, s. 781-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Tumors often exhibit activation of specific tyrosine kinases, which may allow targeting of therapy through inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling. This strategy has been used successfully in the development of STI571 (gleevec), an inhibitor of bcr-abl tyrosine kinase that has been used successfully in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. STI571 also shows activity against c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRbeta) tyrosine kinase signaling, thus potentially expanding the number of tumors that may respond to it. We describe a simple and rapid method to assess functional activity of tyrosine kinase signaling that is broadly applicable to tumor types. As proof of principle, we have applied it to cells that serve as models of the autosomal-dominant tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis (TS). We found that TS model cells derived from tuberin heterozygous mice and from a human renal angiomyolipoma are highly sensitive to PDGFR antagonists and that these cells express PDGFRbeta. Given that PDGFRbeta signaling is inhibited by STI571, we found that SV7tert human angiomyolipoma cells are sensitive to STI571. Thus, we describe a novel but simple method of determining the functional tyrosine kinase profile of a neoplastic cell and our results suggest that STI571 might be useful in the treatment of neoplasms commonly seen in patients with TS.</p>
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2.
  • Block, Keith I., et al. (författare)
  • Designing a broad-spectrum integrative approach for cancer prevention and treatment
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Seminars in Cancer Biology. - Academic Press. - 1044-579X .- 1096-3650. ; 35, s. S276-S304
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Targeted therapies and the consequent adoption of "personalized" oncology have achieved notable successes in some cancers; however, significant problems remain with this approach. Many targeted therapies are highly toxic, costs are extremely high, and most patients experience relapse after a few disease-free months. Relapses arise from genetic heterogeneity in tumors, which harbor therapy-resistant immortalized cells that have adopted alternate and compensatory pathways (i.e., pathways that are not reliant upon the same mechanisms as those which have been targeted). To address these limitations, an international task force of 180 scientists was assembled to explore the concept of a low-toxicity "broadspectrum" therapeutic approach that could simultaneously target many key pathways and mechanisms. Using cancer hallmark phenotypes and the tumor microenvironment to account for the various aspects of relevant cancer biology, interdisciplinary teams reviewed each hallmark area and nominated a wide range of high-priority targets (74 in total) that could be modified to improve patient outcomes. For these targets, corresponding low-toxicity therapeutic approaches were then suggested, many of which were phytochemicals. Proposed actions on each target and all of the approaches were further reviewed for known effects on other hallmark areas and the tumor microenvironment Potential contrary or procarcinogenic effects were found for 3.9% of the relationships between targets and hallmarks, and mixed evidence of complementary and contrary relationships was found for 7.1%. Approximately 67% of the relationships revealed potentially complementary effects, and the remainder had no known relationship. Among the approaches, 1.1% had contrary, 2.8% had mixed and 62.1% had complementary relationships. These results suggest that a broad-spectrum approach should be feasible from a safety standpoint. This novel approach has potential to be relatively inexpensive, it should help us address stages and types of cancer that lack conventional treatment, and it may reduce relapse risks. A proposed agenda for future research is offered. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p>
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3.
  • Cao, Yihai, et al. (författare)
  • Forty-Year Journey of Angiogenesis Translational Research
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1946-6234 .- 1946-6242. ; 3:114
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Forty years ago, Judah Folkman predicted that tumor growth is dependent on angiogenesis and that inhibiting this process might be a new strategy for cancer therapy. This hypothesis formed the foundation of a new field of research that represents an excellent example of how a groundbreaking scientific discovery can be translated to yield benefits for patients. Today, antiangiogenic drugs are used to treat human cancers and retinal vascular diseases. Here, we guide readers through 40 years of angiogenesis research and discuss challenges of antiangiogenic therapy.</p>
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4.
  • Cao, Ziquan, 1982- (författare)
  • VEGF-mediated vascular functions in health and disease
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Blodkärlsnybildning, så kallad angiogenes, är viktigt för fysiologiska processer vid embryonal utveckling, vävnadsregenerering och reproduktion. Samma angiogena process kan också under olika sjukdomstillstånd bidra till uppkomst, utveckling och progress av många sjukdomar, såsom cancer, diabeteskomplikationer, ögonsjukdomar, kronisk inflammation samt hjärtkärlsjukdom. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) är mycket viktig för fysiologisk och patologisk angiogenes. Utöver sin starka angiogena effekt inducerar VEGF även ökad kärlpermeabilitet, som ofta orsakar ödem. VEGF utövar sin effekt på kärlen via två tyrosinkinasreceptorer: VEGFR1 och VEGFR2, där den senare är en funktionell receptor som förmedlar både angiogena signaler och har effekter på vaskulär permeabilitet. För att öka möjlgheterna att studera fysiologiska och patologiska funktioner av VEGF, har vi utvecklat sjukdomsmodeller i zebrafisk - hypoxi-inducerad retinopati och metastasering av cancer. Vi har också givit anti-VEGF och anti-VEGFR-specifika antikroppar till friska möss för att utvärdera VEGFs roll vid stabiliseringen av kärlfunktionen i olika vävnader och organ.</p><p>Slutligen,utvärderade vi om expressionen av VEGF regleras av dygnsrytmen genom så kallade klock-gener. I papper I utvecklade vi en modell för hypoxiinducerad retinopati hos vuxna zebrafiskar. Vuxna fli1:EGFP zebrafiskar placeras i syrefattigt vatten i 3-10 dagar, varpå retinal nybildning av kärl analyserades. Denna modell ger en unik icke-invasiv möjlighet att studera kinetiskt utveckling av retinopati och den möjliggör bedömning av terapeutiska effekter av oralt givna anti-angiogena läkemedel. I papper II utvecklade vi en zebrafiskmodell för utvärdering av cancermetastasering, som möjliggör studier av detaljerade delprocesser vid hypoxi-inducerad tumörcellsinvasion och metastasering i samband med angiogenes på encellig nivå. I denna modell användes fluorescerande Dil-märkta humana- eller mustumörceller som implanterades vid den perivitellina hålighet hos 48-h-gamla zebrafiskembryon placerade i syrefattigt vatten i 3 dagar. Tumörcellinvasion, metastasering och patologisk angiogenes analyserades med mikroskopi i levande fiskar. Vårt protokoll möjliggör studier av molekylära mekanismer bakom hypoxi-inducerad cancermetastasering. I papper III visas, att systemisk administration av anti-VEGF eller anti-VEGF-receptor (VEGFR)-2 neutraliserande antikroppar in en musmodell orsakar generell kärlregression. Bland alla undersökta vävnader påverkades endokrina körtlar, tarmslemhinna och uterus mest av VEGF eller VEGFR-2 blockad. Långvarig anti-VEGF behandling resulterade i en signifikant minskning av cirkulerande nivåer av det dominerande sköldkörtelhormonet, fritt tyroxin, men inte av trijodtyronin, vilket tyder på att kronisk anti-VEGF behandling försämrar sköldkörtelfunktionerna. Resultaten påvisar risken för biverkningar i friska vävnader av anti-VEGF behandling. I papper IV visar vi att störningar i dygnsrytm genom konstant exponering för ljus och genetisk manipulation av nyckelgener i zebrafisk ledde till nedsatt angiogenes under embryonal utveckling. En bmal1-specifik morfolino hämmade angiogenes i zebrafisk utan att orsaka andra kärl-oberoende fenotyper. Omvänt, en period2 morfolino accelererade angiogeneskärltillväxt, vilket tyder på att Bmal1 och Period2 utövar motsatta effekter påkärlstillväxt. Dessa resultat ger mekanistisk kunskap om den roll som dygnsrytmen har i regleringen av angiogenes, och resultat kan rimligen utvidgas till andra typer av fysiologisk eller patologisk angiogenes. Sammanfattningsvis ger resultaten i denna avhandling ytterligare kunskap om angiogenetiska mekanismer och pekar på möjliga nya terapeutiska mål för behandling av olika angiogenes-beroende sjukdomar.</p>
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5.
  • Funa, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • Shb gene knockdown increases the susceptibility of SVR endothelial tumor cells to apoptotic stimuli in vitro and in vivo
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. - 0022-202X .- 1523-1747. ; 128:3, s. 710-716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The Shb adapter protein is an Src homology 2-domain containing signaling intermediate operating downstream of several tyrosine kinase receptors, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. Shb is multifunctional and apoptosis is one response that Shb regulates. Inhibition of angiogenesis can be used in cancer therapy, and one way to achieve this is by inducing endothelial cell apoptosis. The angiosarcoma cell line SVR is of endothelial origin and can be used as a tool for studying in vivo inhibition of angiogenesis, and we thus employed an Shb-knockdown strategy using an inducible lentiviral system to reduce Shb levels in SVR cells and to study their responses. Shb knockdown increases the susceptibility of SVR cells to the apoptotic agents, cisplatin and staurosporine. Simultaneously, Shb knockdown causes reduced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation, monitored as phosphorylation of the regulatory residues tyrosines 576/577. No detectable effects on Akt or extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity were noted. The altered FAK activity coincided with an elongated cell phenotype that was particularly noticeable in the presence of staurosporine. In order to relate the effects of Shb knockdown to in vivo tumorigenicity, cells were exposed to the angiogenesis inhibitor honokiol, and again the cells with reduced Shb content exhibited increased apoptosis. Tumor growth in vivo was strongly reduced in the Shb-knockdown cells upon honokiol treatment. It is concluded that Shb regulates apoptosis and cell shape in tumor endothelial cells via FAK, and that Shb is a potential target for inhibition of angiogenesis.</p>
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6.
  • Rennel, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Regulation of endothelial cell differentiation and transformation by H-Ras
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Experimental Cell Research. - 0014-4827 .- 1090-2422. ; 291:1, s. 189-200
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Angiogenesis is regulated by growth factors which activate tyrosine kinase receptors leading to the activation of a number of intracellular signaling pathways. The specific function of H-Ras during FGF-2 stimulated endothelial cell differentiation, defined as invasive growth and formation of branching networks in fibrin gels, was investigated by using conditionally immortalized endothelial cell lines induced to express H-Ras mutants. Expression of inhibitory N17Ras did not impair differentiation in response to FGF-2 and TNF-alpha. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-277 inhibited farnesylation of Ras but did not inhibit differentiation of human microvascular endothelial cells or mouse brain endothelial cells. In contrast, activated V12Ras inhibited endothelial cell differentiation and cells displayed a transformed phenotype with an increased rate of proliferation and loss of contact inhibited growth. Furthermore, V12Ras expressing endothelial cells grew as solid tumors when injected subcutaneously into mice. Our data suggest that, in endothelial cells, H-Ras activity is not required for differentiation. However, this activity must be tightly regulated as aberrant activity can disturb the ability of endothelial cells to undergo differentiation.</p>
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