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1.
  • Svensson, Johan, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Endocrine, liver-derived IGF-I is of importance for spatial learning and memory in old mice.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of endocrinology. - 0022-0795. ; 189:3, s. 617-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IGF-I is a neuroprotective hormone, and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, have been associated with decreased serum IGF-I concentration. In this study, IGF-I production was inactivated in the liver of adult mice (LI-IGF-I(-/-)), resulting in an approximately 80-85% reduction of circulating IGF-I concentrations. In young (6-month-old) mice there was no difference between the LI-IGF-I(-/-) and the control mice in spatial learning and memory as measured using the Morris water maze test. In old (aged 15 and 18 months) LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice, however, the acquisition of the spatial task was slower than in the controls. Furthermore, impaired spatial working as well as reference memory was observed in the old LI-IGF(-/-) mice. Histochemical analyses revealed an increase in dynorphin and enkephalin immunoreactivities but decreased mRNA levels in the hippocampus of old LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice. These mice also displayed astrocytosis and increased metabotropic glutamate receptor 7a-immunoreactivity. These neurochemical disturbances suggest synaptic dysfunction and early neurodegeneration in old LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice. The decline in serum IGF-I with increasing age may therefore be important for the age-related decline in memory function.
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2.
  • Adrianson, Lillemor, et al. (författare)
  • Cultural influences upon health, affect, self-esteem and impulsiveness: An Indonesian-Swedish comparison
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology. - 2243-7781 .- 2243-779X. ; 2:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study examines several personal attributes that distinguish the personal profiles of individuals, from Indonesian and Swedish cultures, according to self-reports of positive and negative effect, stress and energy, self-esteem, hospital anxiety and depression, dispositional optimism and health. Indonesian participants expressed both more PA and more NA than Swedish participants but less stress and a higher energy-stress quotient than the Swedish participants. Additionally, the former expressed a higher level of optimism and self-esteem, but also more depression, and less impulsiveness than the latter. Younger participants expressed less positive affect and more negative affect and impulsiveness than older participants who expressed both more stress and a higher energy stress quotient. Regression analyses indicated that PA was predicted by optimism and health whereas NA was predicted by anxiety and depression and impulsiveness and counter predicted by health. The present findings are discussed according to the notion of emotional regulation according to which individuals differ in their use of emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal and suppression, and these individual differences have implications for affect, well-being, and social relationships.
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3.
  • Adriansson, Lillemor, et al. (författare)
  • Affectively Motivated: Affective Profiles, Motivation, Stress and Energy
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Biquarterly Iranian Journal of Health Psychology. ; 2:2, s. 21-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We used the affective profiles model to investigate individual differences in motivation, stress and energy. The aim was to replicate past findings, but we also focused on matched comparisons within individuals with affective profiles that are similar in one affective dimension and differ in the other in order to predict changes when individuals increase/decrease their experience of positive or negative affect. Methods: A total of 567 participants answered the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, which was used for affective profiling; the Situational Motivation Scale, which measures intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation, and amotivation; and the Stress-Energy questionnaire. Results: Comparisons between the four different profiles, replicating the past findings, showed that individuals with high affective and self-fulfilling profile scored highest in intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and energy, while they scored lowest in external motivation, amotivation, and the self-fulfilling profile, also lowest in stress. Additionally, the matched comparisons showed, for example, that levels of intrinsic motivation increase when negative affect levels decrease, and positive affect is kept high when positive affect decreases and negative affect is kept low. Conclusions: One important feature of the affective profiles model is the possibility to compare individuals that are similar in one affect dimension but differ in the other (Garcia, 2011, 2017). This way of discussing individual differences helps to predict what changes could be expected when individuals increase or decrease their experience of positive or negative affect. Importantly, the direction of these changes cannot be addressed from cross-sectional data.
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4.
  • Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • Police Personnel Affective Profiles: Differences in Perceptions of the Work Climate and Motivation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. - 0882-0783. ; 31:1, s. 2-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The affective profile model was used to investigate individual differences in police personnel perceptions about the working climate and its influences on motivation. The Positive Affect, Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) was used to assign police personnel, sworn and non-sworn (N = 595), to four affective profiles: self-fulfilling, low affective, high affec- tive, and self-destructive. The work climate was assessed using the Learning Climate Questionnaire (Management Relations and Style, Time, Autonomy and Responsibility, Team Style, Opportunities to Develop, Guidelines on How to do the Job, and Contentedness). Motivation was evaluated using a modified version (to refer specifically to the individual’s work situation) of the Situational Motivation Scale (intrinsic motiva- tion, external regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation). Self-fulfilling individuals scored higher on all work climate dimensions compared to the other three groups. Compared to low positive affect profiles, individuals with profiles of high positive affect scored higher in intrinsic motivation and identified regulation. Self-destructive individuals scored higher in amotivation. Different aspects of the work climate were related to each motivation dimension among affective profiles. Police personnel may react to their work environment depending on their affective profile. Moreover, the extent to which the work influences police personnel’s motivation is also related to the affective profile of the individual.
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5.
  • Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • The Affective Profile Model in Swedish Police Personnel: Work Climate and Motivation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: 26th Association for Psychological Science Annual Convention. San Francisco, California, USA.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • ABSTRACT The study showed that police personnel perceive the work environment depending on their affective profile, these perceptions in turn influence motivation differently for each profile. A positive view on the work environment and intrinsic motivation being related to an affective profile depicted as high positive affect and low negative affect. SUPPORTING SUMMARY Background: The work climate (i.e., employees’ perceptions of how they are treated and managed in their organization) is important when the organizations try to motivate employees to allocate and enhance their efforts into their work. The affective profile model offers something unique over and above the single dimensional framework of affectivity by taking into account how positive (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) interact; these interaction can be used to investigate individual differences in perceptions about the working climate and its influences on motivation. Method: We used the Positive Affect, Negative Affect Schedule to categorize police personnel (N = 595) in four affective profiles: Self-fulfilling (high PA and low NA), low affective (low PA and low NA), high affective (high PA and high NA), and self-destructive (low PA and high NA). Individuals’ perceptions of the work climate were assessed using the Learning Climate Questionnaire which measures seven dimensions: management relations and style, time, autonomy and responsibility, team style, opportunities to develop, guidelines on how to do the job, and contentedness. Finally, we used the Situational Motivation Scale to measure four motivation dimensions: intrinsic motivation, external regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation. Results: Results show that self-fulfilling individuals scored higher on all work climate compared to the other three groups. Regarding motivation, profiles with high PA (self-fulfilling and high affective) scored higher in internal motivation and identified regulation than the profiles with low PA. Self-destructive individuals scored higher in amotivation compared to the other three profiles. Different aspects of the work climate were related to each motivation dimension among affective profiles. Conclusions: These results suggest that individuals may react to the work environment depending on their affective profile. Moreover, how the work environment influences police personnel’s motivation is also a function of the individuals’ distinct affective profile.
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6.
  • Andersson Arntén, Ann-Christine, 1954-, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of work-related stress on the sexual relation quality of the couple
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Sexologies. - 1158-1360. ; 17, Supplement 1:0
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study is part of a research project including stress, coping-strategies, mood, partnership relation quality, and illhealth. Earlier findings tentatively suggest the health-promoting advantages of positive partnership relations in counteracting the illhealth accruing from various types of general stress and the particular stresses of work occupation. In this study two hundred and twelve participants derived from several different occupations, responded to questionnaires based upon self-report instruments including the Subjective Stress Experience Questionnaire, the Stress and Energy Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Job Stress Survey, Partnership Relations Quality Test, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Gender differences were found in levels of sexual desire and intercourse satisfaction, together with sexual pleasure and more orgasms. The results also indicated that illhealth induced less frequency of caressing, fewer orgasms during intercourse, lower level of intercourse satisfaction and sexual pleasure). Negative affect induced lower levels of intercourse satisfaction and sexual desire. Work related stress induced a lower level of intercourse satisfaction and sexual desire. On the other hand good coping-strategies were related to higher frequency of caressing, intimate communication, intercourse frequency, sexual pleasure, and intercourse satisfaction. Positive affect induced higher level of intercourse satisfaction, sexual pleasure, sexual desire, more orgasms, and greater satisfaction with the sexual life. These results indicate that stress, illhealth, and negative affect impairs a flourishing love life and that coping-strategies and positive affect on the other hand are positive factors for obtaining such a love life.
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7.
  • Archer, Trevor, 1949-, et al. (författare)
  • affect, motivation, motor, addiction, impulsiveness, distress, exercise
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Beyond Neuropsychiatric Diagnotics: Symptoms not Disorders. - Mountain Home, USA. : F.P. Graham Publishing: Mountain Home, USA. ; s. 477-512
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Cognitive symptoms, considered in conjunction both with their regional brain and biomarkers as well as affective, attributional and neurodevelopmental components, demonstate ever-increasing complexity to facilate conceptualization yet, unavoidably, bedevil diagnosis in neuropsychiatry even before considerations of the enigmatic processes in memory, such as executive function and working memory, are draw into the myriads of equations that await remedial interpretations. Prefrontal and limbic regions of the brain are involved in a diversity of expressions of cognition, normal or dysfunctional, at synaptic, intracellular and molecular levels that mobilise a concatenation of signaling entities. Serotoninergic neurotransission at prefrontal regions directs cogntive-affective entities that mediate decision-making and goal-directed behaviour. Clinical, non-clinical and basic studies challenge attempts to consolidate the multitude of evidence in order to obtain therapeutic notions to alleviate the disordered status of the diagnosed and yet-to-be diagnosed individuals. Locus of control, a concept of some utility in health-seeking procedures, is examined in three self-reort studies from the perspective of a cognitive-emotional situation through observations of ordinary, ‘healthy’ young and middle-aged individuals, to assess the predictors of internal and external locus of control. A notion based on high level executive functioning in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in individuals characterised by internal locus of control is contrasted with a hypofunctional executive DLPFC, characterising individuals that express an external locus of control, is discussed.
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8.
  • Archer, Trevor, 1949-, et al. (författare)
  • Affective personality as cognitive-emotional presymptom profiles regulatory for self-reported health predispositions.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neurotoxicity research. - 1029-8428. ; 14:1, s. 21-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Three studies that examined the links between affective personality, as constructed from responses to the Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA) Scale (PANAS), and individuals' self-report of self-esteem, intrinsic motivation and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) depression in high school students and persons in working occupations are described. Self-report estimations of several other neuropsychiatric and psychosocial variables including, the Uppsala Sleep Inventory (USI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) test, Dispositional optimism, Locus of control, the Subjective Stress Experience test (SSE) and the Stress-Energy (SE) test, were also derived. Marked effects due to affective personality type upon somatic and psychological stress, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, internal and external locus of control, optimism, stress and energy, intrinsic motivation, external regulation, identified regulation, major sleep problems, problems falling asleep, and psychophysiological problems were observed; levels of self-esteem, self-motivation and BDI-depression all produced substantial effects on health and well-being. Regression analyses indicated PA was predicted by dispositional optimism (thrice), energy (thrice), and intrinsic motivation, and counter predicted by depression (twice) and stress (twice); and NA by anxiety (twice), stress (twice), psychological stress, identified regulation, BDI depression and psychophysiological problems, and counter predicted by internal locus of control and self-esteem. BDI-depression was predicted by negative affect, major sleep problems and psychophysiological problems (Study III), self-esteem by dispositional optimism and energy, and counter predicted by anxiety, depression and stress (Study I), and intrinsic motivation by dispositional optimism, energy, PA and self-esteem (Study II). These convergent findings are interpreted from a perspective of the cognitive-emotional expressions underlying behavioural or presymptomatic profiles presenting predispositions for health or ill health.
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9.
  • Archer, Trevor, 1949-, et al. (författare)
  • Affective Profiling to Determine Propensity for Empowerment or Disempowerment: Protective Attributes or Afflictive Proclivities in Depressive States and Well-Being
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Psychology. - 2471-2701. ; 1:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A plethora of studies focusing on a ective personality attributes, positive a ect (PA) and negative a ect (NA), have measured ubiquitously self-reports of the Positive A ect and Negative A ect Schedule (PANAS), forming the basis of prevailing notions regarding health and well-being over di erent ethnical populations, gender and clinical and healthy volunteer populations [1-27]. Invariably, these studies have measured participants’ self-reported feelings of enthusiasm, activity, feelings of duty, control, strong, proud (i.e., PA) linking them to well- being, proneness to frequent exercise and agentic, cooperative, and spiritual behaviors (e.g., self-acceptance, goal-orientations, empathy, helpfulness, seeking support in faith, meaningfulness). In contrast, feelings such as anger, guilt, shame contempt, and distress (i.e., NA) are associated with anxiety, depressiveness, ill-being, rumination, inaction (e.g., low exercise frequency and passive leisure activities such as watching TV) and health problems. ese studies show that PA and NA ought to be viewed as separate entities, despite the temptation to view them as opposite poles on a continuum
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10.
  • Archer, Trevor, 1949-, et al. (författare)
  • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Focus upon Aberrant N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors Systems
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: R. M. Kostrzewa & T. Archert (Eds.), Neurotoxin Modeling of Brain Disorders – Life-long Outcomes in Behavioral Teratology, Volume 29 of the series Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences.. - Amsterdam : Springer. - 978-3-319-34134-7 ; s. 295-311
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pathophysiology persists in an obscure manner with complex interactions between symptoms, staging, interventions, genes, and environments. Only on the basis of increasing incidence of the disorder, the need for understanding is greater than ever. The notion of an imbalance between central inhibitory/excitatory neurotransmitters is considered to exert an essential role. In this chapter, we first review how the default mode network functions and dysfunction in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. We also present and briefly review some of the animal models used to examine the neurobiological aspects of ADHD. There is much evidence indicating that compounds/interventions that antagonize/block glutamic acid receptors and/or block the glutamate signal during the "brain growth spurt" or in the adult animal may induce functional and biomarker deficits. Additionally, we present evidence suggesting that animals treated with glutamate blockers at the period of the "brain growth spurt" fail to perform the exploratory activity, observed invariably with control mice, that is associated with introduction to a novel environment (the test cages). Later, when the control animals show less locomotor and rearing activity, i.e., interest in the test cages, the MK-801, ketamine and ethanol treated mice showed successively greater levels of locomotion and rearing (interest), i.e., they fail to "habituate" effectively, implying a cognitive dysfunction. These disturbances of glutamate signaling during a critical period of brain development may contribute to the ADHD pathophysiology. As a final addition, we have briefly identified new research venues in the interaction between ADHD, molecular studies, and personality research.
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