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Sökning: WFRF:(Ardalan Ali)

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  • Danaei, Goodarz, et al. (författare)
  • Iran in transition
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 393:10184, s. 1984-2005
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being the second-largest country in the Middle East, Iran has a long history of civilisation during which several dynasties have been overthrown and established and health-related structures have been reorganised. Iran has had the replacement of traditional practices with modern medical treatments, emergence of multiple pioneer scientists and physicians with great contributions to the advancement of science, environmental and ecological changes in addition to large-scale natural disasters, epidemics of multiple communicable diseases, and the shift towards non-communicable diseases in recent decades. Given the lessons learnt from political instabilities in the past centuries and the approaches undertaken to overcome health challenges at the time, Iran has emerged as it is today. Iran is now a country with a population exceeding 80 million, mainly inhabiting urban regions, and has an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, malignancies, mental disorders, substance abuse, and road injuries.
  • Djalali, Ahmadreza, et al. (författare)
  • Nonstructural Safety of Hospitals for Disasters : A Comparison Between Two Capital Cities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1935-7893 .- 1938-744X. ; 8:2, s. 179-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Hospitals are expected to function as a safe environment during disasters, but many become unusable because of nonstructural damage. This study compares the nonstructural safety of hospitals to disasters in Tehran and Stockholm.METHODS: Hospital safety in Tehran and Stockholm was assessed between September 24, 2012, and April 5, 2013, with use of the nonstructural module of the hospital safety index from the World Health Organization. Hospital safety was categorized as safe, at risk, or inadequate.RESULTS: All 4 hospitals in Stockholm were classified as safe, while 2 hospitals in Tehran were at risk and 3 were safe. The mean nonstructural safety index was 90% ± 2.4 SD for the hospitals in Stockholm and 64% ± 17.4 SD for those in Tehran (P = .014).CONCLUSIONS: The level of hospital safety, with respect to disasters, was not related to local vulnerability. Future studies on hospital safety should assess other factors such as legal and financial issues. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-6).
  • Sävman, Karin, 1960, et al. (författare)
  • Galectin-3 Modulates Microglia Inflammation in vitro but Not Neonatal Brain Injury in vivo under Inflammatory Conditions
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Developmental Neuroscience. - 0378-5866 .- 1421-9859. ; 43:5, s. 296-311
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microglia may contribute to injury but may also have neuroprotective properties. Galectin-3 has immunomodulatory properties that may affect the microglia phenotype and subsequent development of injury. Galectin-3 contributes to experimental hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in the neonatal brain, but it is unclear if galectin-3 has similar effects on infectious and sterile inflammation. Thus, we investigated the effect of galectin-3 on microglia in vitro under normal as well as infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions, and the effect of galectin-3 on neonatal brain injury following an infectious challenge in vivo. Conditions mimicking infectious or sterile inflammation were evaluated in primary microglia cell cultures from newborn mice, using LPS (10 ng/mL) and TNF-alpha (100 ng/mL). The response to galectin-3 was tested alone or together with LPS or TNF-alpha. Supernatants were collected 24 h after treatment and analyzed for 23 inflammatory mediators including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines using multiplex protein analysis, as well as ELISA for MCP-1 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Phosphorylation of proteins (AKT, ERK1/2, I kappa B-alpha, JNK, and p38) was determined in microglia cells. Neonatal brain injury was induced by a combination of LPS and HI (LPS + HI) in postnatal day 9 transgenic mice lacking functional galectin-3 and wild-type controls. LPS and TNF-alpha induced pro-inflammatory (9/11 vs. 9/10) and anti-inflammatory (6/6 vs. 2/6) cytokines, as well as chemokines (6/6 vs. 4/6) in a similar manner, except generally lower amplitude of the TNF-alpha-induced response. Galectin-3 alone had no effect on any of the proteins analyzed. Galectin-3 reduced the LPS- and TNF-alpha-induced microglia response for cytokines, chemokines, and phosphorylation of I kappa B-alpha. LPS decreased baseline IGF-1 levels, and the levels were restored by galectin-3. Brain injury or microglia response after LPS + HI was not affected by galectin-3 deficiency. Galectin-3 has no independent effect on microglia but modulates inflammatory activation in vitro. The effect was similar under infectious and sterile inflammatory conditions, suggesting that galectin-3 regulates inflammation not just by binding to LPS or toll-like receptor-4. Galectin-3 restores IGF-1 levels reduced by LPS-induced inflammation, suggesting a potential protective effect on infectious injury. However, galectin-3 deficiency did not affect microglia activation and was not beneficial in an injury model encompassing an infectious challenge.
  • Anzabi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Hippocampal Atrophy Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Correlates with Disruption of Astrocyte Morphology and Capillary Coverage by AQP4
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. - 1662-5102. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite successful management of ruptured intracranial aneurysm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) remains the main cause of high mortality and morbidity in patients who survive the initial bleeding. Astrocytes play a key role in neurovascular coupling. Therefore, changes in the neurovascular unit including astrocytes following SAH may contribute to the development of DCI and long-term complications. In this study, we characterized morphological changes in hippocampal astrocytes following experimental SAH, with special emphasis on glia-vascular cross-talk and hippocampal volume changes. Four days after induction of SAH or sham-operation in mice, their hippocampal volumes were determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological/stereological methods. Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunostained hippocampal sections were examined by stereological techniques to detect differences in astrocyte morphology, and global spatial sampling method was used to quantify the length density of Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) positive capillaries. Our results indicated that hippocampal volume, as measured both by MRI and by histological approaches, was significantly lower in SAH animals than in the sham-operated group. Accordingly, in this animal model of SAH, hippocampal atrophy existed already at the time of DCI onset in humans. SAH induced retraction of GFAP positive astrocyte processes, accompanied by a significant reduction in the length density of AQP4 positive capillaries as well as narrowing of hippocampal capillaries. Meanwhile, astrocyte volume was higher in SAH mice compared with the sham-operated group. Morphological changes in hippocampal astrocytes seemingly disrupt glia-vascular interactions early after SAH and may contribute to hippocampal atrophy. We speculate that astrocytes and astrocyte-capillary interactions may provide targets for the development of therapies to improve the prognosis of SAH.
  • Ardalan, Ali, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of the Bam Earthquake, 26 December 2003, on Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living of Older People
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. - 1049-023X .- 1945-1938. ; 26:2, s. 99-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: This study compares self-reported Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) status among elderly survivors of the 2003 Bam Earthquake before, two months after, and five years after the event, and explores related determinants.METHODS: A two-stage cluster survey was conducted on 210 elderly survivors in the earthquake-stricken area five years after the event.RESULTS: Both ADL and IADL scores decreased two months after earthquake compared to prior status (p <0.001). No differences were observed between two months and five years after the event (p >0.05). Access to medical services were not related to level of ADL or IADL (p = 0.52 and p = 0.74, respectively). Elderly survivors with lower functional capability in terms of ADL experienced more problems in access to relief items (p = 0.04), but no similar association was found for IADL (p = 0.26).CONCLUSION: The Bam earthquake adversely affected functional capacity of the elderly. Disaster responders must take into account functional capacity of elders when planning for medical and relief operations.
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  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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