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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Artner Isabella) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Artner Isabella)

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1.
  • Korchynska, Solomiia, et al. (författare)
  • Life-long impairment of glucose homeostasis upon prenatal exposure to psychostimulants
  • Ingår i: EMBO Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2075 .- 0261-4189. ; 39:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Maternal drug abuse during pregnancy is a rapidly escalating societal problem. Psychostimulants, including amphetamine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, are amongst the illicit drugs most commonly consumed by pregnant women. Neuropharmacology concepts posit that psychostimulants affect monoamine signaling in the nervous system by their affinities to neurotransmitter reuptake and vesicular transporters to heighten neurotransmitter availability extracellularly. Exacerbated dopamine signaling is particularly considered as a key determinant of psychostimulant action. Much less is known about possible adverse effects of these drugs on peripheral organs, and if in utero exposure induces lifelong pathologies. Here, we addressed this question by combining human RNA-seq data with cellular and mouse models of neuroendocrine development. We show that episodic maternal exposure to psychostimulants during pregnancy coincident with the intrauterine specification of pancreatic β cells permanently impairs their ability of insulin production, leading to glucose intolerance in adult female but not male offspring. We link psychostimulant action specifically to serotonin signaling and implicate the sex-specific epigenetic reprogramming of serotonin-related gene regulatory networks upstream from the transcription factor Pet1/Fev as determinants of reduced insulin production.
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2.
  • Ameri, Jacqueline, et al. (författare)
  • FGF2 Specifies hESC-Derived Definitive Endoderm into Foregut/Midgut Cell Lineages in a Concentration-Dependent Manner.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Stem Cells. - : AlphaMed Press. - 1549-4918. ; 28, s. 45-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling controls axis formation during endoderm development. Studies in lower vertebrates have demonstrated that FGF2 primarily patterns the ventral foregut endoderm into liver and lung, whereas FGF4 exhibits broad anterior-posterior and left-right patterning activities. Furthermore, an inductive role of FGF2 during dorsal pancreas formation has been shown. However, whether FGF2 plays a similar role during human endoderm development remains unknown. Here, we show that FGF2 specifies hESC-derived definitive endoderm (DE) into different foregut lineages in a dosage-dependent manner. Specifically, increasing concentrations of FGF2 inhibits hepatocyte differentiation, whereas intermediate concentration of FGF2 promotes differentiation towards a pancreatic cell fate. At high FGF2 levels specification of midgut endoderm into small intestinal progenitors is increased at the expense of PDX1+ pancreatic progenitors. High FGF2 concentrations also promote differentiation towards an anterior foregut pulmonary cell fate. Finally, by dissecting the FGF receptor intracellular pathway that regulates pancreas specification, we demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that induction of PDX1+ pancreatic progenitors relies on FGF2-mediated activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Altogether, these observations suggest a broader gut endodermal patterning activity of FGF2 that corresponds to what has previously been advocated for FGF4, implying a functional switch from FGF4 to FGF2 during evolution. Thus, our results provide new knowledge of how cell fate specification of human DE is controlled - facts that will be of great value for future regenerative cell therapies.
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3.
  • Arregi, Igor, et al. (författare)
  • Retinol dehydrogenase-10 regulates pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation via paracrine retinoic acid signaling
  • Ingår i: Endocrinology. - : Endocrine Society. - 0013-7227. ; 157:12, s. 4615-4631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vitamin A-derived retinoic acid (RA) signals are critical for the development of several organs, including the pancreas. However, the tissue-specific control of RA synthesis in organ and cell lineage development has only poorly been addressed in vivo. Here, we show that retinol dehydrogenase-10 (Rdh10), a key enzyme in embryonic RA production, has important functions in pancreas organogenesis and endocrine cell differentiation. Rdh10 was expressed in the developing pancreas epithelium and surrounding mesenchyme. Rdh10 null mutant mouse embryos exhibited dorsal pancreas agenesis and a hypoplastic ventral pancreas with retarded tubulogenesis and branching. Conditional disruption of Rdh10 from the endoderm caused increased mortality, reduced body weight, and lowered blood glucose levels after birth. Endodermal Rdh10 deficiency led to a smaller dorsal pancreas with a reduced density of early glucagonβ and insulinβ cells. During the secondary transition, the reduction of Neurogenin3β endocrine progenitors in the mutant dorsal pancreas accounted for fewer β-and α-cells. Changes in the expression of β-and α-cellspecific transcription factors indicated that Rdh10 might also participate in the terminal differentiation of endocrine cells. Together, our results highlight the importance of both mesenchymal andepithelialRdh10forpancreogenesisandthefirstwaveofendocrinecell differentiation.Wefurther propose a model in which the Rdh10-expressing exocrine tissue acts as an essential source ofRAsignals in the second wave of endocrine cell differentiation.
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4.
  • Artner, Isabella, et al. (författare)
  • MafA and MafB Regulate Genes Critical to beta-Cells in a Unique Temporal Manner
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 59:10, s. 2530-2539
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-Several transcription factors are essential to pancreatic islet beta-cell development, proliferation, and activity, including MafA and MafB. However, MafA and MafB are distinct from others in regard to temporal and islet cell expression pattern, with beta-cells affected by MafB only during development and exclusively by MafA in the adult. Our aim was to define the functional relationship between these closely related activators to the beta-cell. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The distribution of MafA and MafB in the beta-cell population was determined immunohistochemically at various developmental and perinatal stages in mice. To identify genes regulated by MafB, microarray profiling was performed on wild-type and MafB(-/-) pancreata at embryonic day 18.5, with candidates evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. The potential role of MafA in the expression of verified targets was next analyzed in adult islets of a pancreas-wide MafA mutant (termed MafA(Delta Panc)). RESULTS-MafB was produced in a larger fraction of beta-cells than MafA during development and found to regulate potential effectors of glucose sensing, hormone processing, vesicle formation, and insulin secretion. Notably, expression from many of these genes was compromised in MafA(Delta Panc) islets, suggesting that MafA is required to sustain expression in adults. CONCLUSIONS-Our results provide insight into the sequential manner by which MafA and MafB regulate islet beta-cell formation and maturation. Diabetes 59:2530-2539, 2010
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5.
  • Artner, Isabella, et al. (författare)
  • MaFA is a dedicated activator of the insulin gene in vivo.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Endocrinology. - : Society for Endocrinology. - 1479-6805. ; May 30, s. 271-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As successful generation of insulin producing cells could be used for diabetes treatment, a concerted effort is being made to understand the molecular programs underlying islet beta cell formation and function. The closely related MafA and MafB transcription factors are both key mammalian beta cell regulators. MafA and MafB are co-expressed in insulin+ beta cells during embryogenesis, while in the adult pancreas MafA is only produced in beta cells and MafB in glucagon+ alpha cells. MafB-/- animals are also deficient in insulin+ and glucagon+ cell production during embryogenesis. However, only MafA over-expression selectively induced endogenous Insulin mRNA production in cell line based assays, while MafB specifically promoted Glucagon expression. Here we analyzed if these factors were sufficient to induce insulin+ and/or glucagon+ cell formation within embryonic endoderm using the chick in ovo electroporation assay. Ectopic expression of MafA, but not MafB, promoted Insulin production, however neither MafA nor MafB were capable of inducing Glucagon. Co-electroporation of MafA with the Ngn3 transcription factor resulted in the development of more organized cell clusters containing both insulin and glucagon producing cells. Analysis of chimeric proteins of MafA and MafB demonstrated that chick Insulin activation depended on sequences within the MafA C-terminal DNA binding domain. MafA was also bound to Insulin and Glucagon transcriptional control sequences in mouse embryonic pancreas and beta cell lines. Collectively, these results demonstrate a unique ability for MafA to independently activate Insulin transcription.
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6.
  • Artner, Isabella, et al. (författare)
  • MafB is required for islet beta cell maturation
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : National Acad Sciences. - 0027-8424. ; 104:10, s. 8-3853
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation depends on transcription factors that also contribute in adult insulin and glucagon gene expression. Islet cell development was examined in mice lacking MafB, a transcription factor expressed in immature alpha (glucagon(+)) and beta (insulin(+)) cells and capable of activating insulin and glucagon expression in vitro. We observed that MafB(-/-) embryos had reduced numbers of insulin(+) and glucagon(+) cells throughout development, whereas the total number of endocrine cells was unchanged. Moreover, production of insulin(+) cells was delayed until embryonic day (E) 13.5 in mutant mice and coincided with the onset of MafA expression, a MafB-related activator of insulin transcription. MafA expression was only detected in the insulin(+) cell population in MafB mutants, whereas many important regulatory proteins continued to be expressed in insulin(-) beta cells. However, Pdx1, Nkx6.1, and GLUT2 were selectively lost in these insulin-deficient cells between E15.5 and E18.5. MafB appears to directly regulate transcription of these genes, because binding was observed within endogenous control region sequences. These results demonstrate that MafB plays a previously uncharacterized role by regulating transcription of key factors during development that are required for the production of mature alpha and beta cells.
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7.
  • Bennet, Hedvig, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonin (5-HT) receptor 2b activation augments glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human and mouse islets of Langerhans.
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 59:4, s. 744-754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Gq-coupled 5-hydroxytryptamine 2B (5-HT2B) receptor is known to regulate the proliferation of islet beta cells during pregnancy. However, the role of serotonin in the control of insulin release is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of the 5-HT2B receptor in the regulation of insulin secretion in mouse and human islets, as well as in clonal INS-1(832/13) cells.
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8.
  • Cataldo Bascuñan, Luis Rodrigo, et al. (författare)
  • Serotonergic Regulation of Insulin Secretion
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1748-1716. ; 225:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The exact physiological role for the monoamine serotonin (5-HT) in modulation of insulin secretion is yet to be fully understood. Although the presence of this monoamine in islets of Langerhans is well established, it is only with recent advances that the complex signaling network in islets involving 5-HT is being unraveled. With more than fourteen different 5-HT receptors expressed in human islets, and receptor independent mechanisms in insulin producing β-cells, our understanding of 5-HT's regulation of insulin secretion is increasing. It is now widely accepted that failure of the pancreatic β-cell to release sufficient amounts of insulin is the main cause of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), an ongoing global epidemic. In this context, 5-HT signaling may be of importance. In fact, 5-HT may serve an essential role in regulating the release of insulin and glucagon, the two main hormones that control glucose and lipid homeostasis. In the present review, we will discuss past and current understanding of 5-HT's role in the endocrine pancreas. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Dwivedi, Om Prakash, et al. (författare)
  • Loss of ZnT8 function protects against diabetes by enhanced insulin secretion
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036. ; , s. 1-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A rare loss-of-function allele p.Arg138* in SLC30A8 encoding the zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), which is enriched in Western Finland, protects against type 2 diabetes (T2D). We recruited relatives of the identified carriers and showed that protection was associated with better insulin secretion due to enhanced glucose responsiveness and proinsulin conversion, particularly when compared with individuals matched for the genotype of a common T2D-risk allele in SLC30A8, p.Arg325. In genome-edited human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived β-like cells, we establish that the p.Arg138* allele results in reduced SLC30A8 expression due to haploinsufficiency. In human β cells, loss of SLC30A8 leads to increased glucose responsiveness and reduced KATP channel function similar to isolated islets from carriers of the T2D-protective allele p.Trp325. These data position ZnT8 as an appealing target for treatment aimed at maintaining insulin secretion capacity in T2D.
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10.
  • Ganic, Elvira, et al. (författare)
  • Islet-specific monoamine oxidase A and B expression depends on MafA transcriptional activity and is compromised in type 2 diabetes.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. - : Elsevier. - 1090-2104. ; 468:4, s. 629-635
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lack or dysfunction of insulin producing β cells results in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Insulin secretion is controlled by metabolic stimuli (glucose, fatty acids), but also by monoamine neurotransmitters, like dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Intracellular monoamine levels are controlled by monoamine oxidases (Mao) A and B. Here we show that MaoA and MaoB are expressed in mouse islet β cells and that inhibition of Mao activity reduces insulin secretion in response to metabolic stimuli. Moreover, analysis of MaoA and MaoB protein expression in mouse and human type 2 diabetic islets shows a significant reduction of MaoB in type 2 diabetic β cells suggesting that loss of Mao contributes to β cell dysfunction. MaoB expression was also reduced in β cells of MafA-deficient mice, a mouse model for β cell dysfunction, and biochemical studies showed that MafA directly binds to and activates MaoA and MaoB transcriptional control sequences. Taken together, our results show that MaoA and MaoB expression in pancreatic islets is required for physiological insulin secretion and lost in type 2 diabetic mouse and human β cells. These findings demonstrate that regulation of monoamine levels by Mao activity in β cells is pivotal for physiological insulin secretion and that loss of MaoB expression may contribute to the β cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.
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