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Sökning: WFRF:(Ashton NJ)

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1.
  • Schael, S, et al. (författare)
  • Precision electroweak measurements on the Z resonance
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Reports. - : Elsevier. - 0370-1573 .- 1873-6270. ; 427:5-6, s. 257-454
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. The data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLID experiment using a polarised beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarised asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, m(Z) and Gamma(Z), and its couplings to fermions, for example the p parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: m(Z) = 91.1875 +/- 0.0021 GeV, Gamma(Z) = 2.4952 +/- 0.0023 GeV, rho(l) = 1.0050 +/- 0.0010, sin(2)theta(eff)(lept) = 0.23153 +/- 0.00016. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be 2.9840 +/- 0.0082, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model (SM). At the Z-pole, electroweak radiative corrections beyond the running of the QED and QCD coupling constants are observed with a significance of five standard deviations, and in agreement with the Standard Model. Of the many Z-pole measurements, the forward-backward asymmetry in b-quark production shows the largest difference with respect to its SM expectation, at the level of 2.8 standard deviations. Through radiative corrections evaluated in the framework of the Standard Model, the Z-pole data are also used to predict the mass of the top quark, m(t) = 173(+10)(+13) GeV, and the mass of the W boson, m(W) = 80.363 +/- 0.032 GeV. These indirect constraints are compared to the direct measurements, providing a stringent test of the SM. Using in addition the direct measurements of m(t) and m(W), the mass of the as yet unobserved SM Higgs boson is predicted with a relative uncertainty of about 50% and found to be less than 285 GeV at 95% confidence level. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Ashton, Nicholas J., et al. (författare)
  • The validation status of blood biomarkers of amyloid and phospho-tau assessed with the 5-phase development framework for AD biomarkers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer. - 1619-7070. ; 48:127, s. 2140-2156
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose The development of blood biomarkers that reflect Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology (phosphorylated tau and amyloid-beta) has offered potential as scalable tests for dementia differential diagnosis and early detection. In 2019, the Geneva AD Biomarker Roadmap Initiative included blood biomarkers in the systematic validation of AD biomarkers. Methods A panel of experts convened in November 2019 at a two-day workshop in Geneva. The level of maturity (fully achieved, partly achieved, preliminary evidence, not achieved, unsuccessful) of blood biomarkers was assessed based on the Biomarker Roadmap methodology and discussed fully during the workshop which also evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers. Results Plasma p-tau has shown analytical validity (phase 2 primary aim 1) and first evidence of clinical validity (phase 3 primary aim 1), whereas the maturity level for A beta remains to be partially achieved. Full and partial achievement has been assigned to p-tau and A beta, respectively, in their associations to ante-mortem measures (phase 2 secondary aim 2). However, only preliminary evidence exists for the influence of covariates, assay comparison and cut-off criteria. Conclusions Despite the relative infancy of blood biomarkers, in comparison to CSF biomarkers, much has already been achieved for phases 1 through 3 - with p-tau having greater success in detecting AD and predicting disease progression. However, sufficient data about the effect of covariates on the biomarker measurement is lacking. No phase 4 (real-world performance) or phase 5 (assessment of impact/cost) aim has been tested, thus not achieved.
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5.
  • Shi, Liu, et al. (författare)
  • Dickkopf-1 Overexpression in vitro Nominates Candidate Blood Biomarkers Relating to Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - : IOS Press. - 1875-8908 .- 1387-2877. ; 77:3, s. 1353-1368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies suggest that Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, plays a role in amyloid-induced toxicity and hence Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the effect of DKK1 expression on protein expression, and whether such proteins are altered in disease, is unknown.We aim to test whether DKK1 induced protein signature obtained in vitro were associated with markers of AD pathology as used in the amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration (ATN) framework as well as with clinical outcomes.We first overexpressed DKK1 in HEK293A cells and quantified 1,128 proteins in cell lysates using aptamer capture arrays (SomaScan) to obtain a protein signature induced by DKK1. We then used the same assay to measure the DKK1-signature proteins in human plasma in two large cohorts, EMIF (n = 785) and ANM (n = 677).We identified a 100-protein signature induced by DKK1 in vitro. Subsets of proteins, along with age and apolipoprotein E ɛ4 genotype distinguished amyloid pathology (A + T-N-, A+T+N-, A+T-N+, and A+T+N+) from no AD pathology (A-T-N-) with an area under the curve of 0.72, 0.81, 0.88, and 0.85, respectively. Furthermore, we found that some signature proteins (e.g., Complement C3 and albumin) were associated with cognitive score and AD diagnosis in both cohorts.Our results add further evidence for a role of DKK regulation of Wnt signaling in AD and suggest that DKK1 induced signature proteins obtained in vitro could reflect theATNframework as well as predict disease severity and progression in vivo.
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6.
  • Shi, Liu, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery and validation of plasma proteomic biomarkers relating to brain amyloid burden by SOMAscan assay.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - : Elsevier. - 1552-5279 .- 1552-5260. ; 15:11, s. 1478-1488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plasma proteins have been widely studied as candidate biomarkers to predict brain amyloid deposition to increase recruitment efficiency in secondary prevention clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease. Most such biomarker studies are targeted to specific proteins or are biased toward high abundant proteins.4001 plasma proteins were measured in two groups of participants (discovery group = 516, replication group = 365) selected from the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study, all of whom had measures of amyloid.A panel of proteins (n = 44), along with age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4, predicted brain amyloid deposition with good performance in both the discovery group (area under the curve = 0.78) and the replication group (area under the curve = 0.68). Furthermore, a causal relationship between amyloid and tau was confirmed by Mendelian randomization.The results suggest that high-dimensional plasma protein testing could be a useful and reproducible approach for measuring brain amyloid deposition.
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7.
  • Shi, Liu, et al. (författare)
  • Replication study of plasma proteins relating to Alzheimer's pathology.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1552-5279 .- 1552-5260.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study sought to discover and replicate plasma proteomic biomarkers relating to Alzheimer's disease (AD) including both the "ATN" (amyloid/tau/neurodegeneration) diagnostic framework and clinical diagnosis.Plasma proteins from 972 subjects (372 controls, 409 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 191 AD) were measured using both SOMAscan and targeted assays, including 4001 and 25 proteins, respectively.Protein co-expression network analysis of SOMAscan data revealed the relation between proteins and "N" varied across different neurodegeneration markers, indicating that the ATN variants are not interchangeable. Using hub proteins, age, and apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype discriminated AD from controls with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 and MCI convertors from non-convertors with an AUC of 0.74. Targeted assays replicated the relation of four proteins with the ATN framework and clinical diagnosis.Our study suggests that blood proteins can predict the presence of AD pathology as measured in the ATN framework as well as clinical diagnosis.
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8.
  • Smailovic, U., et al. (författare)
  • Synaptic Molecular and Neurophysiological Markers Are Independent Predictors of Progression in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimers Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 83:1, s. 355-366
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurogranin and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) are potential molecular and functional markers of synaptic pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synaptic markers have emerged as candidate prognostic indicators of AD since synaptic degeneration was shown to be an early event and the best correlate of cognitive deficits in patients along the disease continuum. Objective: The present study investigated the association between CSF neurogranin and qEEG measures as well as their potential to predict clinical deterioration in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. Methods: Patients diagnosed with MCI (n = 99) underwent CSF conventional AD biomarkers and neurogranin analysis and resting-state EEG recordings. The study population was further stratified into stable (n = 41) and progressive MCI (n = 31), based on the progression to AD dementia during two years follow-up. qEEG analysis included computation of global field power and global field synchronization in four conventional frequency bands. Results: CSF neurogranin levels were associated with theta power and synchronization in the progressive MCI group. CSF neurogranin and qEEG measures were significant predictors of progression to AD dementia, independent of baseline amyloid status in MCI patients. A combination of CSF neurogranin with global EEG power in theta and global EEG synchronization in beta band exhibited the highest classification accuracy as compared to either of these markers alone. Conclusion: qEEG and CSF neurogranin are independent predictors of progression to AD dementia in MCI patients. Molecular and neurophysiological synaptic markers may have additive value in a multimodal diagnostic and prognostic approach to dementia.
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10.
  • Westwood, Sarah, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of Plasma Proteomic Biomarkers Relating to Brain Amyloid Burden in the EMIF-Alzheimer's Disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery Cohort.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - : IOS Press. - 1875-8908 .- 1387-2877. ; 74:1, s. 213-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously investigated, discovered, and replicated plasma protein biomarkers for use to triage potential trials participants for PET or cerebrospinal fluid measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. This study sought to undertake validation of these candidate plasma biomarkers in a large, multi-center sample collection. Targeted plasma analyses of 34 proteins with prior evidence for prediction of in vivo pathology were conducted in up to 1,000 samples from cognitively healthy elderly individuals, people with mild cognitive impairment, and in patients with AD-type dementia, selected from the EMIF-AD catalogue. Proteins were measured using Luminex xMAP, ELISA, and Meso Scale Discovery assays. Seven proteins replicated in their ability to predict in vivo amyloid pathology. These proteins form a biomarker panel that, along with age, could significantly discriminate between individuals with high and low amyloid pathology with an area under the curve of 0.74. The performance of this biomarker panel remained consistent when tested in apolipoprotein E ɛ4 non-carrier individuals only. This blood-based panel is biologically relevant, measurable using practical immunocapture arrays, and could significantly reduce the cost incurred to clinical trials through screen failure.
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