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1.
  • de Jong, R. S., et al. (författare)
  • 4MOST : Project overview and information for the First Call for Proposals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Messenger. - : European Southern Observatory. - 0722-6691. ; 175, s. 3-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We introduce the 4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope (4MOST), a new high-multiplex, wide-field spectroscopic survey facility under development for the four-metre-class Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at Paranal. Its key specifications are: a large field of view (FoV) of 4.2 square degrees and a high multiplex capability, with 1624 fibres feeding two low-resolution spectrographs (R = λ/Δλ ~ 6500), and 812 fibres transferring light to the high-resolution spectrograph (R ~ 20 000). After a description of the instrument and its expected performance, a short overview is given of its operational scheme and planned 4MOST Consortium science; these aspects are covered in more detail in other articles in this edition of The Messenger. Finally, the processes, schedules, and policies concerning the selection of ESO Community Surveys are presented, commencing with a singular opportunity to submit Letters of Intent for Public Surveys during the first five years of 4MOST operations.
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2.
  • Thul, Peter J., et al. (författare)
  • A subcellular map of the human proteome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 356:6340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Resolving the spatial distribution of the human proteome at a subcellular level can greatly increase our understanding of human biology and disease. Here we present a comprehensive image-based map of subcellular protein distribution, the Cell Atlas, built by integrating transcriptomics and antibody-based immunofluorescence microscopy with validation by mass spectrometry. Mapping the in situ localization of 12,003 human proteins at a single-cell level to 30 subcellular structures enabled the definition of the proteomes of 13 major organelles. Exploration of the proteomes revealed single-cell variations in abundance or spatial distribution and localization of about half of the proteins to multiple compartments. This subcellular map can be used to refine existing protein-protein interaction networks and provides an important resource to deconvolute the highly complex architecture of the human cell.
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3.
  • Chriett, S., et al. (författare)
  • SCRT1 is a novel beta cell transcription factor with insulin regulatory properties
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 0303-7207 .- 1872-8057. ; 521
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here we show that scratch family transcriptional repressor 1 (SCRT1), a zinc finger transcriptional regulator, is a novel regulator of beta cell function. SCRT1 was found to be expressed in beta cells in rodent and human islets. In human islets, expression of SCRT1 correlated with insulin secretion capacity and the expression of the insulin (INS) gene. Furthermore, SCRT1 mRNA expression was lower in beta cells from T2D patients. siRNA-mediated Scrt1 silencing in INS-1832/13 cells, mouse- and human islets resulted in impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and decreased expression of the insulin gene. This is most likely due to binding of SCRT1 to E-boxes of the Ins1 gene as shown with ChIP. Scrt1 silencing also reduced the expression of several key beta cell transcription factors. Moreover, Scrt1 mRNA expression was reduced by glucose and SCRT1 protein was found to translocate between the nucleus and the cytosol in a glucose-dependent fashion in INS-1832/13 cells as well as in a rodent model of T2D. SCRT1 was also regulated by a GSK3β-dependent SCRT1-serine phosphorylation. Taken together, SCRT1 is a novel beta cell transcription factor that regulates insulin secretion and is affected in T2D.
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4.
  • Smiljanic, R., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey: The analysis of high-resolution UVES spectra of FGK-type stars
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The ongoing Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is using FLAMES at the VLT to obtain high-quality medium-resolution Giraffe spectra for about 10(5) stars and high-resolution UVES spectra for about 5000 stars. With UVES, the Survey has already observed 1447 FGK-type stars. Aims. These UVES spectra are analyzed in parallel by several state-of-the-art methodologies. Our aim is to present how these analyses were implemented, to discuss their results, and to describe how a final recommended parameter scale is defined. We also discuss the precision (method-to-method dispersion) and accuracy (biases with respect to the reference values) of the final parameters. These results are part of the Gaia-ESO second internal release and will be part of its first public release of advanced data products. Methods. The final parameter scale is tied to the scale defined by the Gaia benchmark stars, a set of stars with fundamental atmospheric parameters. In addition, a set of open and globular clusters is used to evaluate the physical soundness of the results. Each of the implemented methodologies is judged against the benchmark stars to define weights in three different regions of the parameter space. The final recommended results are the weighted medians of those from the individual methods. Results. The recommended results successfully reproduce the atmospheric parameters of the benchmark stars and the expected T-eff-log g relation of the calibrating clusters. Atmospheric parameters and abundances have been determined for 1301 FGK-type stars observed with UVES. The median of the method-to-method dispersion of the atmospheric parameters is 55K for T-eff, 0.13dex for log g and 0.07 dex for [Fe/H]. Systematic biases are estimated to be between 50-100 K for T-eff, 0.10-0.25 dex for log g and 0.05-0.10 dex for [Fe/H]. Abundances for 24 elements were derived: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Eu. The typical method-to-method dispersion of the abundances varies between 0.10 and 0.20 dex. Conclusions. The Gaia-ESO sample of high-resolution spectra of FGK-type stars will be among the largest of its kind analyzed in a homogeneous way. The extensive list of elemental abundances derived in these stars will enable significant advances in the areas of stellar evolution and Milky Way formation and evolution.
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5.
  • Lanzafame, A. C., et al. (författare)
  • Gaia-ESO Survey: Analysis of pre-main sequence stellar spectra
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 576
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is obtaining high-quality spectroscopy of some 100 000 Milky Way stars using the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT, down to V = 19 mag, systematically covering all the main components of the Milky Way and providing the first homogeneous overview of the distributions of kinematics and chemical element abundances in the Galaxy. Observations of young open clusters, in particular, are giving new insights into their initial structure, kinematics, and their subsequent evolution. Aims. This paper describes the analysis of UVES and GIRAFFE spectra acquired in the fields of young clusters whose population includes pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. The analysis is applied to all stars in such fields, regardless of any prior information on membership, and provides fundamental stellar atmospheric parameters, elemental abundances, and PMS-specific parameters such as veiling, accretion, and chromospheric activity. Methods. When feasible,different methods were used to derive raw parameters (e. g. line equivalent widths) fundamental atmospheric parameters and derived parameters (e. g. abundances). To derive some of these parameters, we used methods that have been extensively used in the past and new ones developed in the context of the Gaia-ESO survey enterprise. The internal precision of these quantities was estimated by inter-comparing the results obtained by these different methods, while the accuracy was estimated by comparison with independent external data, such as effective temperature and surface gravity derived from angular diameter measurements, on a sample of benchmarks stars. A validation procedure based on these comparisons was applied to discard spurious or doubtful results and produce recommended parameters. Specific strategies were implemented to resolve problems of fast rotation, accretion signatures, chromospheric activity, and veiling. Results. The analysis carried out on spectra acquired in young cluster fields during the first 18 months of observations, up to June 2013, is presented in preparation of the first release of advanced data products. These include targets in the fields of the rho Oph, Cha I, NGC2264, gamma Vel, and NGC 2547 clusters. Stellar parameters obtained with the higher resolution and larger wavelength coverage from UVES are reproduced with comparable accuracy and precision using the smaller wavelength range and lower resolution of the GIRAFFE setup adopted for young stars, which allows us to provide stellar parameters with confidence for the much larger GIRAFFE sample. Precisions are estimated to be approximate to 120 K rms in T-eff, approximate to 0.3 dex rms in log g, and approximate to 0.15 dex rms in [Fe/H] for the UVES and GIRAFFE setups.
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6.
  • Dupont, C. L., et al. (författare)
  • Functional Tradeoffs Underpin Salinity-Driven Divergence in Microbial Community Composition
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bacterial community composition and functional potential change subtly across gradients in the surface ocean. In contrast, while there are significant phylogenetic divergences between communities from freshwater and marine habitats, the underlying mechanisms to this phylogenetic structuring yet remain unknown. We hypothesized that the functional potential of natural bacterial communities is linked to this striking divide between microbiomes. To test this hypothesis, metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities along a 1,800 km transect in the Baltic Sea area, encompassing a continuous natural salinity gradient from limnic to fully marine conditions, was explored. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that salinity is the main determinant of dramatic changes in microbial community composition, but also of large scale changes in core metabolic functions of bacteria. Strikingly, genetically and metabolically different pathways for key metabolic processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis of quinones and isoprenoids, glycolysis and osmolyte transport, were differentially abundant at high and low salinities. These shifts in functional capacities were observed at multiple taxonomic levels and within dominant bacterial phyla, while bacteria, such as SAR11, were able to adapt to the entire salinity gradient. We propose that the large differences in central metabolism required at high and low salinities dictate the striking divide between freshwater and marine microbiomes, and that the ability to inhabit different salinity regimes evolved early during bacterial phylogenetic differentiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of microbial distributions and stress the need to incorporate salinity in future climate change models that predict increased levels of precipitation and a reduction in salinity.
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7.
  • Jackson, R. J., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey: Empirical determination of the precision of stellar radial velocities and projected rotation velocities
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) is a large public spectroscopic survey at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Aims. A key aim is to provide precise radial velocities (RVs) and projected equatorial velocities (v sin i) for representative samples of Galactic stars, which will complement information obtained by the Gaia astrometry satellite. Methods. We present an analysis to empirically quantify the size and distribution of uncertainties in RV and v sin i using spectra from repeated exposures of the same stars. Results. We show that the uncertainties vary as simple scaling functions of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and v sin i, that the uncertainties become larger with increasing photospheric temperature, but that the dependence on stellar gravity, metallicity and age is weak. The underlying uncertainty distributions have extended tails that are better represented by Student's t-distributions than by normal distributions. Conclusions. Parametrised results are provided, which enable estimates of the RV precision for almost all GES measurements, and estimates of the v sin i precision for stars in young clusters, as a function of S/N, v sin i and stellar temperature. The precision of individual high S/N GES RV measurements is 0.22-0.26 km s(-1), dependent on instrumental configuration.
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8.
  • Pancino, E., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey : Calibration strategy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP SCIENCES S A. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 598
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Gaia-ESO survey (GES) is now in its fifth and last year of observations and has produced tens of thousands of high-quality spectra of stars in all Milky Way components. This paper presents the strategy behind the selection of astrophysical calibration targets, ensuring that all GES results on radial velocities, atmospheric parameters, and chemical abundance ratios will be both internally consistent and easily comparable with other literature results, especially from other large spectroscopic surveys and from Gaia. The calibration of GES is particularly delicate because of (i) the large space of parameters covered by its targets, ranging from dwarfs to giants, from O to M stars; these targets have a large wide of metallicities and also include fast rotators, emission line objects, and stars affected by veiling; (ii) the variety of observing setups, with different wavelength ranges and resolution; and (iii) the choice of analyzing the data with many different state-of-the-art methods, each stronger in a different region of the parameter space, which ensures a better understanding of systematic uncertainties. An overview of the GES calibration and homogenization strategy is also given, along with some examples of the usage and results of calibrators in GES iDR4, which is the fourth internal GES data release and will form the basis of the next GES public data release. The agreement between GES iDR4 recommended values and reference values for the calibrating objects are very satisfactory. The average off sets and spreads are generally compatible with the GES measurement errors, which in iDR4 data already meet the requirements set by the main GES scientific goals.
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9.
  • Wiklund, Per-Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and risk of stroke : replicated findings in two nested case-control studies based on independent cohorts.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 36:8, s. 1661-1665
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Impaired fibrinolytic function secondary to elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels has been implicated in ischemic stroke. PAI-1 levels are determined by genetic factors and environmental factors, triglyceride levels in particular. The aim of this study was to investigate the common functional 4/5 guanosine (4G/5G) polymorphism in the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene and the risk of stroke. METHODS: A nested case-control study design was applied, using baseline data for 2 independent cohorts obtained at population-based surveys in northern Sweden. In study A, there were 113, and in study B, there were 275 individuals without major concomitant disease at baseline who later experienced a first-ever stroke. Blood samples obtained at baseline were analyzed for potential risk factors, including the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene. RESULTS: The 4G allele of the PAI-1 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of future ischemic stroke in both studies (odds ratio [OR] of 4G homozygosity, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12 to 3.15 in study A; OR of 4G homozygosity, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.16 in study B). Individuals with the combination of hypertriglyceridemia and 4G homozygosity were at the greatest risk of developing stroke. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified 4G homozygosity, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes as independent predictors of ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Identical findings in 2 independent studies strongly suggest a true and clinically important association between PAI-1 4G/5G genotype and risk of future ischemic stroke. The observed modification of the genotype effect by triglycerides may be interpreted as a gene-environment interaction.
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10.
  • Fagerberg, Linn, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of the human tissue-specific expression by genome-wide integration of transcriptomics and antibody-based proteomics
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics. - 1535-9476 .- 1535-9484. ; 13:2, s. 397-406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global classification of the human proteins with regards to spatial expression patterns across organs and tissues is important for studies of human biology and disease. Here, we used a quantitative transcriptomics analysis (RNA-Seq) to classify the tissue-specific expression of genes across a representative set of all major human organs and tissues and combined this analysis with antibody- based profiling of the same tissues. To present the data, we launch a new version of the Human Protein Atlas that integrates RNA and protein expression data corresponding to 80% of the human protein-coding genes with access to the primary data for both the RNA and the protein analysis on an individual gene level. We present a classification of all human protein-coding genes with regards to tissue-specificity and spatial expression pattern. The integrative human expression map can be used as a starting point to explore the molecular constituents of the human body.
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