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Sökning: WFRF:(Axel Nordenskjöld)

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  • Brus, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Subjective Memory Immediately Following Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of ECT. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1095-0680. ; 33:2, s. 96-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aims of the present study were to describe the short-term rate of subjective memory worsening (SMW) and identify factors of importance for SMW in a large clinical sample treated for depression with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).Methods: This register-based study included 1212 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. Subjective memory worsening was defined as a 2-point worsening on the memory item of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale from before to within 1 week after treatment. Associations between patient characteristics and treatment factors were examined using logistic regression.Results: Subjective memory worsening was experienced in 26%. It was more common in women than in men (31% vs 18%; P < 0.001) and more common in patients aged 18 to 39 years than in patients 65 years or older (32% vs 22%; P = 0.008). Patients with less subjective memory disturbances before ECT had a greater risk of SMW. Patients in remission after ECT had a lower risk of SMW. A brief pulse width stimulus gave higher risk of SMW compared with ultrabrief pulse (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.47).Conclusions: Subjective memory worsening is reported by a minority of patients. However, young women are at risk of experiencing SMW. Ultrabrief pulse width stimulus could be considered for patients treated with unilateral electrode placement who experience SMW. Each patient should be monitored with regard to symptoms and adverse effects, and treatment should be adjusted on an individual basis to maximize the clinical effect and with efforts to minimize the cognitive adverse effects.
  • Holm, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Improvement of cycloid psychosis following electroconvulsive therapy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 0803-9488. ; 71:6, s. 405-410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The treatment of choice for cycloid psychosis has traditionally been electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), but there is a lack of studies on its effectiveness.Aims: The primary aim of this register study was to determine the rates of remission and response after ECT for cycloid psychosis. The secondary aim was to examine possible predictors of outcome.Methods: Data were obtained from the National Quality Register for ECT in Sweden. The study population was patients (n=42) who received ECT for acute polymorphic psychotic disorder without symptoms of schizophrenia or for cycloid psychosis between 2011-2015 in 13 hospitals. Remission and response rates were calculated using Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) and -Improvement scores, respectively. Variables with possible predictive value were tested using Chi-square and Fishers exact test.Results: The response rate was 90.5%. The remission rate was 45.2%. Of 42 patients, 40 improved their CGI-S score after ECT (pamp;lt;0.001). The mean number of ECT treatments was 2.5 for non-responders and 7.0 for responders (p=0.010). The mean number of ECT treatments did not differ significantly between remitters and non-remitters (7.2 vs 6.1, p=0.31). None of the other investigated potential predictors was statistically significantly associated with outcome.Conclusions: ECT is an effective treatment for cycloid psychosis. Future studies need to compare the outcome of ECT to that of other treatment strategies. Clinical implications: The high response rate with ECT indicates that cycloid psychosis is a clinically useful diagnosis.
  • Nordenskjold, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Continuation electroconvulsive therapy with pharmacotherapy versus pharmacotherapy alone for prevention of relapse of depression : A Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of ECT. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1095-0680. ; 29:2, s. 86-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that relapse prevention with continuation electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) plus pharmacotherapy is more effective than pharmacotherapy alone after a course of ECT for depression.METHODS: A multicenter, nonblinded, randomized controlled trial with 2 parallel groups was performed from 2008 to 2012 in 4 hospitals in Sweden. Patients eligible had unipolar or bipolar depression and had responded to a course of ECT. The patients (n = 56) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receiving either 29 treatments of continuation ECT with pharmacotherapy or pharmacotherapy alone for 1 year. The pharmacotherapy consisted of antidepressants (98%), lithium (56%), and antipsychotics (30%). The main outcome was relapse of depression within 1 year. Relapse was defined as 20 or more points on the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale or inpatient psychiatric care or suicide or suspected suicide. All 56 patients randomized were analyzed according to an intention to treat analysis.RESULTS: Sixty-one percent of the patients treated with pharmacotherapy versus 32% of the patients treated with ECT plus pharmacotherapy relapsed within 1 year (P = 0.036). The Cox proportional hazard ratio was 2.32 (1.03-5.22).Cognitive function and memory measures were stable for patients without relapse in both groups.One suspected suicide and 3 suicide attempts by intoxication occurred, all in the pharmacotherapy-alone group.CONCLUSIONS: The post-ECT relapse rates were substantial in both treatment groups with a statistically significant advantage for combined treatment with pharmacotherapy and continuation ECT. Further studies are needed to define indications for continuation ECT, pharmacotherapy, and their combination.
  • Popiolek, Katarzyna, et al. (författare)
  • Rehospitalization and suicide following electroconvulsive therapy for bipolar depression–A population-based register study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - 0165-0327. ; 226, s. 146-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in bipolar depression, but relapse is common. The aim of the study was (i) to identify prognostic factors (ii) and to determine the impact of pharmacological approaches on the risk for rehospitalization or suicide. Methods: This register study analyzed data from individuals treated with inpatient ECT for bipolar depression. Subjects were identified using the Swedish National Patient Register between 2011 and 2014 and the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. Other national registers provided data on psychopharmacotherapy, socio-demographic factors, and causes of death. The endpoint was the composite of rehospitalization for any psychiatric disorder, suicide attempt or completed suicide (RoS). Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios in univariate and multivariate models. Results: Data from 1255 patients were analyzed. The mean period of follow-up was 346 days. A total of 29%, 41%, and 52% of patients reached RoS at 3, 6, and 12 months post-discharge. A history of multiple psychiatric admissions, lower age, and post-discharge treatment with antipsychotics or benzodiazepines was associated with RoS. Limitations: Indication bias may have affected the results. Conclusions: A history of multiple hospital admissions and lower age are key predictors of the composite of rehospitalization or suicide in patients treated with ECT for bipolar depression. Lithium might be effective. By contrast, antipsychotics and benzodiazepines were associated with increased risk, but possibly this finding was influenced by indication bias.
  • Rönnqvist, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • Rehospitalization of Postpartum Depression and Psychosis After Electroconvulsive Therapy A Population-Based Study With a Matched Control Group
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of ECT. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1095-0680. ; 35:4, s. 264-271
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used in some cases of postpartum depression (PPD) and postpartum psychosis (PPP). The risk of relapse for PPD and PPP after ECT is unknown. This study compared the relapse rate after ECT between women who had been treated for PPD and/or PPP and women who had been treated for depression and/or psychosis outside the postpartum period.METHODS: The Swedish National Quality Register for ECT and the Swedish National Patient Register were used to identify women with PPD and/or PPP who had been treated with ECT within 6 months after delivery. For each case, a control (treated with ECT but not postpartum) patient was also selected. A Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to calculate the relapse rate (defined as rehospitalization or suicide) after ECT. Cox regression was used to identify variables associated with relapse.RESULTS: A total of 180 patients were included in each group. The proportions of patients who suffered relapse after 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 28%, 31%, and 40% for the postpartum group and 39%, 50%, and 55% for the nonpostpartum group. Treatment with benzodiazepines, several previous psychiatric admissions, and the absence of improvement after ECT were associated with relapse.CONCLUSIONS: The risk of relapse after ECT is lower for patients with PPD and/or PPP than for patients outside the postpartum period, but the risk is nonetheless substantial in both groups.
  • Brus, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Lithium for suicide and readmission prevention after electroconvulsive therapy for unipolar depression population-based register study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BJPsych Open. - Royal College of Psychiatrists. ; 5:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective for unipolar depression but relapse and suicide are significant challenges. Lithium could potentially lower these risks, but is used only in a minority of patients.AimsThis study quantifies the effect of lithium on risk of suicide and readmission and identifies factors that are associate with readmission and suicide.METHOD: This population-based register study used data from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT and other Swedish national registers. Patients who have received ECT for unipolar depression as in-patients between 2011 and 2016 were followed until death, readmission to hospital or the termination of the study at the end of 2016. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of readmission and suicide in adjusted models.RESULTS: Out of 7350 patients, 56 died by suicide and 4203 were readmitted. Lithium was prescribed to 638 (9%) patients. Mean follow-up was 1.4 years. Lithium was significantly associated with lower risk of suicide (P = 0.014) and readmission (HR 0.84 95% CI 0.75-0.93). The number needed to be treated with lithium to prevent one readmission was 16. In addition, the following factors were statistically associated with suicide: male gender, being a widow, substance use disorder and a history of suicide attempts. Readmission was associated with young age, being divorced or unemployed, comorbid anxiety disorder, nonpsychotic depression, more severe symptoms before ECT, no improvement with ECT, not receiving continuation ECT or antidepressants, usage of antipsychotics, anxiolytics or benzodiazepines, severity of medication resistance and number of previous admissions.CONCLUSIONS: More patients could benefit from lithium treatment.Declaration of interestNone.
  • Cato, Ville, et al. (författare)
  • Association between benzodiazepines and suicide risk a matched case-control study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - BMC. - 1471-244X. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is unclear whether benzodiazepines increase the risk of suicide. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that benzodiazepines are associated with an increased risk of suicide, by comparing psychopharmacological interventions between psychiatric patients who committed suicide and a group of matched controls.Methods: The case group comprised 154 psychiatric patients (101 men, 53 women; age range: 13-96 years) who had committed suicide in orebro County, Sweden. Control psychiatric patients matched by age, sex, and main psychiatric diagnosis were selected for each case. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios in unadjusted and adjusted models.Results: Benzodiazepine prescriptions were more common among cases than controls (65/154 [42.2%] versus 43/154 [27.9%], p = 0.009, odds ratio: 1.89 [95% CI: 1.17-3.03]). This association remained significant in a model adjusted for previous suicide attempts and somatic hospitalizations (odds ratio: 1.83 [95% CI: 1.06-3.14]). No statistically significant differences were seen between the groups in the use of any other subtype of psychopharmaceutical agent.Conclusions: These data indicate that benzodiazepine use may increase the risk of suicide. However, this study is limited by the potential for indication bias.
  • Holländare, Fredrik, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Are quantity and content of psychiatric interventions associated with suicide? A case-control study of a Swedish sample
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - BioMed Central. - 1471-244X. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Research is required to identify those psychiatric interventions with a protective effect against suicide. The overarching aim of the current study was to examine whether completed suicide in psychiatric patients in a Swedish population was associated with the quantity and nature of previous medical and psychosocial treatment interventions.METHODS: This retrospective case-control study (n = 308) compared a group of deceased psychiatric patients with matched controls. For every case of suicide, a control was found within psychiatry that matched according to sex, age, and primary psychiatric diagnosis. A stepwise forward logistic regression model with suicide as the dependent outcome variable was used.RESULTS: Receiving pharmacotherapy combined with psychotherapy [OR: 0.44 (95% CI: 0.226-0.876), p = 0.019] and a higher number of outpatient visits in psychiatry [OR: 0.99 (95% CI: 0.982-0.999), p = 0.028] were negatively associated with suicide. These associations were still significant after controlling for previous serious suicide attempts and somatic comorbidity.CONCLUSIONS: Frequent visits and pharmacotherapy combined with psychotherapy seem to be important for preventing suicide in psychiatric patients. The reasons for not receiving such therapy are important issues for further study.
  • Kellner, Charles H., et al. (författare)
  • "Treatment Resistance" in Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Patients Time to Move On
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0001-690X. ; 140:5, s. 490-491
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concept of "treatment resistance" has become all the rage in depression research. It is used to define populations in research studies and in treatment algorithms as a rationale for moving on from standard antidepressants to other therapies. In such algorithms, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is often bundled improperly with less effective neurostimulation-methods and experimental pharmacotherapies.
  • Kronsell, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Less memory complaints with reduced stimulus dose during electroconvulsive therapy for depression
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders. - Elsevier. - 0165-0327. ; 259, s. 296-301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but there is risk of cognitive adverse events. This risk has been partially attributed to electrical charge, thus the optimal electrical stimulus dose is still under discussion. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the risk of subjective memory worsening was changed after lowering stimulus dose during ECT for patients with major depression.METHOD: A retrospective register-based intervention study of the effects of reduced electrical charges for patients receiving ECT for depression was conducted. The primary outcome was subjective memory worsening and the secondary outcome change in effect on depressive symptoms.RESULTS: A total of 154 patients were enrolled in the study (High dosage group: n = 57; Lower dosage group: n = 97). Subjective memory worsening after ECT occurred in 44% of patients in the high dosage group and in 25% of patients in the lower dosage group(p = 0.014). There was no significant between-group difference in the anti-depressive effect of ECT.LIMITATIONS: The study was register-based and the two groups were not randomized. A large portion of patients were initially excluded due to missing data in the register. The study lacks a long-term follow up.CONCLUSION: After implementing a change of treatment protocol, that lowered ECT stimulus doses from high to moderate, the occurrence of subjective memory worsening was significantly reduced without compromising treatment results.
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