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1.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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2.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
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4.
  • Lahermo, P, et al. (författare)
  • A quality assessment survey of SNP genotyping laboratories
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 27:7, s. 711-714
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To survey the quality of SNP genotyping, a joint Nordic quality assessment (QA) round was organized between 11 laboratories in the Nordic and Baltic countries. The QA round involved blinded genotyping of 47 DNA samples for 18 or six randomly selected SNPs. The methods used by the participating laboratories included all major platforms for small- to medium-size SNP genotyping. The laboratories used their standard procedures for SNP assay design, genotyping, and quality control. Based on the joint results from all laboratories, a consensus genotype for each DNA sample and SNP was determined by the coordinator of the survey, and the results from each laboratory were compared to this genotype. The overall genotyping accuracy achieved in the survey was excellent. Six laboratories delivered genotype data that were in full agreement with the consensus genotype. The average accuracy per SNP varied from 99.1 to 100% between the laboratories, and it was frequently 100% for the majority of the assays for which SNP genotypes were reported. Lessons from the survey are that special attention should be given to the quality of the DNA samples prior to genotyping, and that a conservative approach for calling the genotypes should be used to achieve a high accuracy.
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5.
  • Meisgen, Sabrina, et al. (författare)
  • The HLA locus contains novel foetal susceptibility alleles for congenital heart block with significant paternal influence
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 275:6, s. 640-651
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to identify foetal susceptibility genes on chromosome six for Ro/SSA autoantibody-mediated congenital heart block.SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of individuals in the Swedish Congenital Heart Block (CHB) study population was performed. Low-resolution HLA-A, -Cw and -DRB1 allele typing was carried out in 86 families comprising 339 individuals (86 Ro/SSA autoantibody-positive mothers, 71 fathers, 87 CHB index cases, and 95 unaffected siblings).RESULTS: A case-control comparison between index cases and population-based out-of-study controls (n=1710) revealed association of CHB with 15 SNPs in the 6p21.3 MHC locus at a chromosome-wide significance of p<2.59×10(-6) (OR 2.21-3.12). In a family-based analysis of association of SNP markers as well as distinct MHC class I and II alleles with CHB, HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-Cw*05 variants were significantly more frequently transmitted to affected individuals (p<0.03 and p<0.05, respectively), while HLA-DRB1*13 and HLA-Cw*06 variants were significantly less often transmitted to affected children (p<0.04 and p<0.03). We further observed marked association of increased paternal (but not maternal) HLA-DRB1*04 transmission to affected offspring (p<0.02).CONCLUSIONS: HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-Cw*05 were identified as novel foetal HLA allele variants that confer susceptibility to CHB in response to Ro/SSA autoantibody exposure, while DRB1*13 and Cw*06 emerged as protective alleles. Additionally, we demonstrated a paternal contribution to foetal susceptibility to CHB for the first time.
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6.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
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7.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • A very-high-energy component deep in the gamma-ray burst afterglow
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 575:7783, s. 464-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are brief flashes of gamma-rays and are considered to be the most energetic explosive phenomena in the Universe(1). The emission from GRBs comprises a short (typically tens of seconds) and bright prompt emission, followed by a much longer afterglow phase. During the afterglow phase, the shocked outflow-produced by the interaction between the ejected matter and the circumburst medium-slows down, and a gradual decrease in brightness is observed(2). GRBs typically emit most of their energy via.-rays with energies in the kiloelectronvolt-to-megaelectronvolt range, but a few photons with energies of tens of gigaelectronvolts have been detected by space-based instruments(3). However, the origins of such high-energy (above one gigaelectronvolt) photons and the presence of very-high-energy (more than 100 gigaelectronvolts) emission have remained elusive(4). Here we report observations of very-high-energy emission in the bright GRB 180720B deep in the GRB afterglow-ten hours after the end of the prompt emission phase, when the X-ray flux had already decayed by four orders of magnitude. Two possible explanations exist for the observed radiation: inverse Compton emission and synchrotron emission of ultrarelativistic electrons. Our observations show that the energy fluxes in the X-ray and gamma-ray range and their photon indices remain comparable to each other throughout the afterglow. This discovery places distinct constraints on the GRB environment for both emission mechanisms, with the inverse Compton explanation alleviating the particle energy requirements for the emission observed at late times. The late timing of this detection has consequences for the future observations of GRBs at the highest energies.
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8.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between a locus downstream DRD1 gene and cerebrospinal fluid dopamine metabolite concentrations in psychosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters. - 0304-3940 .- 1872-7972. ; 619, s. 126-130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dopamine activity, mediated by the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine, is prominent in the human brain and has been implicated in schizophrenia. Dopamine targets five different receptors and is then degraded to its major metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA). We hypothesized that genes encoding dopamine receptors may be associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HVA concentrations in patients with psychotic disorder. We searched for association between 67 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the five dopamine receptor genes i.e., DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4 and DRD5, and the CSF HVA concentrations in 74 patients with psychotic disorder. Nominally associated SNPs were also tested in 111 healthy controls. We identified a locus, located downstream DRD1 gene, where four SNPs, rs11747728, rs11742274, rs265974 and rs11747886, showed association with CSF HVA concentrations in psychotic patients. The associations between rs11747728, which is a regulatory region variant, and rs11742274 with HVA remained significant after correction for multiple testing. These associations were restricted to psychotic patients and were absent in healthy controls. The results suggest that the DRD1 gene is implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis and support the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.
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9.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite concentrations as intermediate phenotypes between glutamate-related genes and psychosis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - 0165-1781 .- 1872-7123. ; 229:1-2, s. 497-504
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glutamate-related genes have been associated with schizophrenia, but the results have been ambiguous and difficult to replicate. Homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) are the major degradation products of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, respectively, and their concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), mainly HVA, have been associated with schizophrenia. In the present study, we hypothesized that CSF HVA, 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations represent intermediate phenotypes in the association between glutamate-related genes and psychosis. To test this hypothesis, we searched for association between 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ten genes shown to be directly or indirectly implicated in glutamate transmission and CSF HVA, 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations in 74 patients with psychotic disease. Thirty-eight nominally significant associations were found. Further analyses in 111 healthy controls showed that 87% of the nominal associations were restricted to the patients with psychosis. Some of the psychosis-only-associated SNPs found in the D-amino acid oxidase activator (DADA) and the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) genes have previously been reported to be associated with schizophrenia. The present results suggest that CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations may represent intermediate phenotypes in the association between glutamate-related genes and psychosis.
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10.
  • Andreou, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in genes implicated in dopamine, serotonin and noradrenalin metabolism suggest association with cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite concentrations in psychosis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Behavioral and Brain Functions. - 1744-9081 .- 1744-9081. ; 10, s. 26-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) are the major monoamine metabolites in the central nervous system (CNS). Their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations, reflecting the monoamine turnover rates in CNS, are partially under genetic influence and have been associated with schizophrenia. We have hypothesized that CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations represent intermediate steps between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes implicated in monoaminergic pathways and psychosis.METHODS: We have searched for association between 119 SNPs in genes implicated in monoaminergic pathways [tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), TPH2, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and MAOB] and monoamine metabolite concentrations in CSF in 74 patients with psychotic disorder.RESULTS: There were 42 nominally significant associations between SNPs and CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations, which exceeded the expected number (20) of nominal associations given the total number of tests performed. The strongest association (p = 0.0004) was found between MAOB rs5905512, a SNP previously reported to be associated with schizophrenia in men, and MHPG concentrations in men with psychotic disorder. Further analyses in 111 healthy individuals revealed that 41 of the 42 nominal associations were restricted to patients with psychosis and were absent in healthy controls.CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that altered monoamine turnover rates in CNS reflect intermediate steps in the associations between SNPs and psychosis.
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