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Sökning: WFRF:(Bachiller R.)

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1.
  • de Graauw, Th., et al. (författare)
  • The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518, s. L6-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: This paper describes the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) that was launched onboard ESA's Herschel Space Observatory in May 2009. Methods: The instrument is a set of 7 heterodyne receivers that are electronically tuneable, covering 480-1250 GHz with SIS mixers and the 1410-1910 GHz range with hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers. The local oscillator (LO) subsystem comprises a Ka-band synthesizer followed by 14 chains of frequency multipliers and 2 chains for each frequency band. A pair of auto-correlators and a pair of acousto-optical spectrometers process the two IF signals from the dual-polarization, single-pixel front-ends to provide instantaneous frequency coverage of 2 × 4 GHz, with a set of resolutions (125 kHz to 1 MHz) that are better than 0.1 km s-1. Results: After a successful qualification and a pre-launch TB/TV test program, the flight instrument is now in-orbit and completed successfully the commissioning and performance verification phase. The in-orbit performance of the receivers matches the pre-launch sensitivities. We also report on the in-orbit performance of the receivers and some first results of HIFI's operations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
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2.
  • Gupta, H., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of OH+ and H2O+ towards Orion KL
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521, s. L47-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report observations of the reactive molecular ions OH+, H2O+, and H3O+ towards Orion KL with Herschel/HIFI. All three N = 1-0 fine-structure transitions of OH+ at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz and both fine-structure components of the doublet ortho-H2O+ 111-000 transition at 1115 and 1139 GHz were detected; an upper limit was obtained for H3O+. OH+ and H2O+ are observed purely in absorption, showing a narrow component at the source velocity of 9 km s-1, and a broad blueshifted absorption similar to that reported recently for HF and para-H218O, and attributed to the low velocity outflow of Orion KL. We estimate column densities of OH+ and H2O+ for the 9 km s-1 component of 9 ± 3 × 1012 cm-2 and 7 ± 2 × 1012 cm-2, and those in the outflow of 1.9 ± 0.7 × 1013 cm-2 and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 1013 cm-2. Upper limits of 2.4 × 1012 cm-2 and 8.7 × 1012 cm-2 were derived for the column densities of ortho and para-H3O+ from transitions near 985 and 1657 GHz. The column densities of the three ions are up to an order of magnitude lower than those obtained from recent observations of W31C and W49N. The comparatively low column densities may be explained by a higher gas density despite the assumption of a very high ionization rate.
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3.
  • van Kempen, T. A., et al. (författare)
  • Origin of the hot gas in low-mass protostars Herschel-PACS spectroscopy of HH 46
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518:Article Number: L121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a Herschel key programme aimed at understanding the physical and chemical structure of young stellar objects (YSOs) with a focus on water and related species. Methods. The low-mass protostar HH 46 was observed with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory to measure emission in H2O, CO, OH, [O I], and [C II] lines located between 63 and 186 mu m. The excitation and spatial distribution of emission can disentangle the different heating mechanisms of YSOs, with better spatial resolution and sensitivity than previously possible. Results. Far-IR line emission is detected at the position of the protostar and along the outflow axis. The OH emission is concentrated at the central position, CO emission is bright at the central position and along the outflow, and H2O emission is concentrated in the outflow. In addition, [O I] emission is seen in low-velocity gas, assumed to be related to the envelope, and is also seen shifted up to 170 km s(-1) in both the red-and blue-shifted jets. Envelope models are constructed based on previous observational constraints. They indicate that passive heating of a spherical envelope by the protostellar luminosity cannot explain the high-excitation molecular gas detected with PACS, including CO lines with upper levels at >2500 K above the ground state. Instead, warm CO and H2O emission is probably produced in the walls of an outflow-carved cavity in the envelope, which are heated by UV photons and non-dissociative C-type shocks. The bright OH and [O I] emission is attributed to J-type shocks in dense gas close to the protostar. In the scenario described here, the combined cooling by far-IR lines within the central spatial pixel is estimated to be 2 x 10(-2) L-circle dot, with 60-80% attributed to J- and C-type shocks produced by interactions between the jet and the envelope.
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4.
  • Benz, A. O., et al. (författare)
  • Hydrides in young stellar objects : Radiation tracers in a protostar-disk-outflow system
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521, s. L35-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Hydrides of the most abundant heavier elements are fundamental molecules in cosmic chemistry. Some of them trace gas irradiated by UV or X-rays. Aims: We explore the abundances of major hydrides in W3 IRS5, a prototypical region of high-mass star formation. Methods: W3 IRS5 was observed by HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory with deep integration (≃2500 s) in 8 spectral regions. Results: The target lines including CH, NH, H3O+, and the new molecules SH+, H2O+, and OH+ are detected. The H2O+ and OH+ J = 1-0 lines are found mostly in absorption, but also appear to exhibit weak emission (P-Cyg-like). Emission requires high density, thus originates most likely near the protostar. This is corroborated by the absence of line shifts relative to the young stellar object (YSO). In addition, H2O+ and OH+ also contain strong absorption components at a velocity shifted relative to W3 IRS5, which are attributed to foreground clouds. Conclusions: The molecular column densities derived from observations correlate well with the predictions of a model that assumes the main emission region is in outflow walls, heated and irradiated by protostellar UV radiation. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by a European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendix (page 5) is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
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5.
  • Bergin, E. A., et al. (författare)
  • Sensitive limits on the abundance of cold water vapor in the DM Tauri protoplanetary disk
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521, s. L33-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed a sensitive search for the ground-state emission lines of ortho-and para-water vapor in the DM Tau protoplanetary disk using the Herschel/HIFI instrument. No strong lines are detected down to 3 sigma levels in 0.5 km s(-1) channels of 4.2 mK for the 1(10)-1(01) line and 12.6 mK for the 1(11)-0(00) line. We report a very tentative detection, however, of the 1(10)-1(01) line in the wide band spectrometer, with a strength of T-mb = 2.7 mK, a width of 5.6 km s(-1) and an integrated intensity of 16.0 mK km s(-1). The latter constitutes a 6 sigma detection. Regardless of the reality of this tentative detection, model calculations indicate that our sensitive limits on the line strengths preclude efficient desorption of water in the UV illuminated regions of the disk. We hypothesize that more than 95-99% of the water ice is locked up in coagulated grains that have settled to the midplane.
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6.
  • Bruderer, S., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel/HIFI detections of hydrides towards AFGL 2591 Envelope emission versus tenuous cloud absorption
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521:1, s. Article Number: L44 -
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory allows the first observations of light diatomic molecules at high spectral resolution and in multiple transitions. Here, we report deep integrations using HIFI in different lines of hydrides towards the high-mass star forming region AFGL 2591. Detected are CH, CH+, NH, OH+, H2O+, while NH+ and SH+ have not been detected. All molecules except for CH and CH+ are seen in absorption with low excitation temperatures and at velocities different from the systemic velocity of the protostellar envelope. Surprisingly, the CH(J(F,P) = 3/2(2),(-) - 1/2(1,+)) and CH+(J = 1-0, J = 2-1) lines are detected in emission at the systemic velocity. We can assign the absorption features to a foreground cloud and an outflow lobe, while the CH and CH+ emission stems from the envelope. The observed abundance and excitation of CH and CH+ can be explained in the scenario of FUV irradiated outflow walls, where a cavity etched out by the outflow allows protostellar FUV photons to irradiate and heat the envelope at larger distances driving the chemical reactions that produce these molecules.
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7.
  • Chavarria, L., et al. (författare)
  • Water in massive star-forming regions : HIFI observations of W3 IRS5
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521, s. L37-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present Herschel observations of the water molecule in the massive star-forming region W3 IRS5. The o-(H2O)-O-17 1(10)-1(01), p-(H2O)-O-18 1(11)-0(00), p-H2O 2(02)-1(11), p-H2O 1(11)-0(00), o-H2O 2(21)-2(12), and o-H2O 2(12)-1(01) lines, covering a frequency range from 552 up to 1669 GHz, have been detected at high spectral resolution with HIFI. The water lines in W3 IRS5 show well-defined high-velocity wings that indicate a clear contribution by outflows. Moreover, the systematically blue-shifted absorption in the H2O lines suggests expansion, presumably driven by the outflow. No infall signatures are detected. The p-H2O 1(11)-0(00) and o-H2O 2(12)-1(01) lines show absorption from the cold material (T similar to 10 K) in which the high-mass protostellar envelope is embedded. One-dimensional radiative transfer models are used to estimate water abundances and to further study the kinematics of the region. We show that the emission in the rare isotopologues comes directly from the inner parts of the envelope (T greater than or similar to 100 K) where water ices in the dust mantles evaporate and the gas-phase abundance increases. The resulting jump in the water abundance (with a constant inner abundance of 10(-4)) is needed to reproduce the o-(H2O)-O-17 1(10)-1(01) and p-(H2O)-O-18 1(11)-0(00) spectra in our models. We estimate water abundances of 10(-8) to 10(-9) in the outer parts of the envelope (T less than or similar to 100 K). The possibility of two protostellar objects contributing to the emission is discussed.
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8.
  • Johnstone, D., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel/HIFI spectroscopy of the intermediate mass protostar NGC7129 FIRS 2
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521, s. L41-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Herschel/HIFI observations of water from the intermediate mass protostar NGC 7129 FIRS 2 provide a powerful diagnostic of the physical conditions in this star formation environment. Six spectral settings, covering four (H2O)-O-16 and two (H2O)-O-18 lines, were observed and all but one (H2O)-O-18 line were detected. The four (H2O)-O-16 lines discussed here share a similar morphology: a narrower, approximate to 6kms(-1), component centered slightly redward of the systemic velocity of NGC7129 FIRS 2 and a much broader, approximate to 25 km s(-1) component centered blueward and likely associated with powerful outflows. The narrower components are consistent with emission from water arising in the envelope around the intermediate mass protostar, and the abundance of H2O is constrained to approximate to 10(-7) for the outer envelope. Additionally, the presence of a narrow self-absorption component for the lowest energy lines is likely due to self-absorption from colder water in the outer envelope. The broader component, where the H2O/CO relative abundance is found to be approximate to 0.2, appears to be tracing the same energetic region that produces strong CO emission at high J.
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9.
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10.
  • Yildiz, U. A., et al. (författare)
  • Herschel/HIFI observations of high-J CO lines in the NGC 1333 low-mass star-forming region
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 521, s. L40-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Herschel/HIFI observations of high-J lines (up to J(u) = 10) of (CO)-C-12, (CO)-C-13 and (CO)-O-18 are presented toward three deeply embedded low-mass protostars, NGC 1333 IRAS 2A, IRAS 4A, and IRAS 4B, obtained as part of the Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program. The spectrally-resolved HIFI data are complemented by ground-based observations of lower-J CO and isotopologue lines. The (CO)-C-12 10-9 profiles are dominated by broad (FWHM 25-30 km s(-1)) emission. Radiative transfer models are used to constrain the temperature of this shocked gas to 100-200 K. Several CO and (CO)-C-13 line profiles also reveal a medium-broad component (FWHM5-10 km s(-1)), seen prominently in H2O lines. Column densities for both components are presented, providing a reference for determining abundances of other molecules in the same gas. The narrow (CO)-O-18 9-8 lines probe the warmer part of the quiescent envelope. Their intensities require a jump in the CO abundance at an evaporation temperature around 25 K, thus providing new direct evidence for a CO ice evaporation zone around low-mass protostars.
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