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Sökning: WFRF:(Backman Helena)

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  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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1.
  • Alexanderson, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • An Arctic perspective on dating Mid-Late Pleistocene environmental history
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - 0277-3791. ; 92, s. 9-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To better understand Pleistocene climatic changes in the Arctic, integrated palaeoenvironmental andpalaeoclimatic signals from a variety of marine and terrestrial geological records as well as geochronologicage control are required, not least for correlation to extra-Arctic records. In this paper we discuss,from an Arctic perspective, methods and correlation tools that are commonly used to date ArcticPleistocene marine and terrestrial events. We review the state of the art of Arctic geochronology, withfocus on factors that affect the possibility and quality of dating, and support this overview by examples ofapplication of modern dating methods to Arctic terrestrial and marine sequences.Event stratigraphy and numerical ages are important tools used in the Arctic to correlate fragmentedterrestrial records and to establish regional stratigraphic schemes. Age control is commonly provided byradiocarbon, luminescence or cosmogenic exposure ages. Arctic Ocean deep-sea sediment successionscan be correlated over large distances based on geochemical and physical property proxies for sedimentcomposition, patterns in palaeomagnetic records and, increasingly, biostratigraphic data. Many of theseproxies reveal cyclical patterns that provide a basis for astronomical tuning.Recent advances in dating technology, calibration and age modelling allow for measuring smallerquantities of material and to more precisely date previously undatable material (i.e. foraminifera for 14C,and single-grain luminescence). However, for much of the Pleistocene there are still limits to the resolutionof most dating methods. Consequently improving the accuracy and precision (analytical andgeological uncertainty) of dating methods through technological advances and better understanding ofprocesses are important tasks for the future. Another challenge is to better integrate marine andterrestrial records, which could be aided by targeting continental shelf and lake records, exploringproxies that occur in both settings, and by creating joint research networks that promote collaborationbetween marine and terrestrial geologists and modellers.
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  • Andersson, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Early life swimming pool exposure and asthma onset in children a case-control study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental health. - BioMed Central. - 1476-069X. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Trichloramine exposure in indoor swimming pools has been suggested to cause asthma in children. We aimed to investigate the risk of asthma onset among children in relation to individual trichloramine exposure.METHODS: A longitudinal nested case-control study of 337 children with asthma (cases) and 633 controls aged 16-17 years was performed within a population-based cohort from The Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies (OLIN). Year of asthma onset and exposure time at different ages were obtained in telephone interviews. Trichloramine concentrations in the pool buildings were measured. Skin prick test results for inhalant allergens were available from previous examinations of the cohort. The risk for asthma was analyzed in relation to the cumulative trichloramine exposure before onset of asthma.RESULTS: Swimming pool exposure in early life was associated with a significantly higher risk of pre-school asthma onset. A dose-response relationship between swimming pool exposure and asthma was indicated in children with asthma onset at 1 year of age. Children who were both sensitized and exposed had a particularly high risk.CONCLUSIONS: Early life exposure to chlorinated swimming pool environments was associated with pre-school asthma onset.
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  • Axelsson, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Sleep disturbances and physical inactivity impair health related quality of life in adult asthmatics
  • 2017
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Sleep disturbances and physical inactivity have only sparsely been studied in relation to health related quality of life (HRQL) in adult asthmatics. Aim: to investigate sleep disturbances and physical inactivity in relation to HRQL in adult asthmatics. Method: The sample (n=737), aged between 21 and 85 years, selected from the OLIN-studies participated in structured interviews about respiratory health, sleep, physical activity and questionnaires on mental and physical HRQL. Results: Sleep disturbances were more common in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics: snoring (p=0.018), difficulties falling asleep (p=0.025), many nocturnal awakenings (p=0.001), daytime sleepiness (p=0.001), early awakenings (p=0.002). Lower mental HRQL was found in asthmatics with difficulties falling asleep (p=0.001), in asthmatics reporting daytime sleepiness (p=0.010) than asthmatics without sleep disturbances. Lower physical HRQL was found in asthmatics with daytime sleepiness (p=0.002), early awakenings (p=0.001) and many nocturnal awakenings (p=0.039) than asthmatics without these sleep disturbances. Lower physical HRQL was found in physically inactive asthmatics than in physically active asthmatics (p=0.034). Physical activity (p=0.008) and asthma control (p=0.049) were stronger predictors of low physical HRQL than sleep disturbances. Difficulties falling asleep (p=0.001) and many nocturnal awakenings (p=0.04) were identified as negative predictors of mental HRQL while asthma control was a non-significant predictor. Conclusion: Helping adult asthmatics to improve their sleeping habits and to increase their physical activity will have a positive impact on their HRQL. Malin Axelssona, Mai Leanderb, Helena Backmanc, Linnea Hedmanc, Eva Rönmarkc a Department of Care Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden b Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden c Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, The OLIN Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
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  • Backman [Fadl], Helena, 1965- (författare)
  • Medicinsk ordlista
  • 1990
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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10.
  • Backman, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • A population-based cohort of adults with asthma: mortality and participation in a long-term follow-up
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Clinical Respiratory Journal. - 2001-8525. ; 4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and objective: Asthma is a major public health concern. The aim of this study was to characterize a large population-based cohort of adults with asthma, and to study factors associated with all-cause mortality and non-participation in a long-term follow-up. Design: Random and stratified samples from five population-based cohorts were clinically examined during 1986-2001, and all subjects with asthma were included in the study (n = 2055, age 19-72 years, 55% women). Independent associations between different risk factors and (i) mortality and (ii) non-participation in a clinical follow-up in 2012-2014 were estimated. Results: In 1986-2001, 95% reported any wheeze and/or attacks of shortness of breath in the past 12 months, and/or asthma medication use. Over the up to 28 years of follow-up time, the cumulative mortality was 22.7%. Male gender, current smoking, and lower forced expiratory volume in 1 sec of predicted (FEV1% of predicted) were independent risk factors for mortality, while obesity was associated with non-participation in the follow-up. Older ages, ischemic heart disease, and low socioeconomic status were associated with both mortality and non-participation. Conclusions: The risk factors associated with mortality in this adult population-based asthma cohort were similar to those commonly identified in general population samples, i.e. male gender, current smoking, and lower FEV1% of predicted, while obesity was associated with non-participation in a long-term follow-up. Ischemic heart disease, low socioeconomic status, and older ages were associated with both mortality and non-participation.
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