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Sökning: WFRF:(Backström Niclas)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 51
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1.
  • Backström, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • A Gene-Based Genetic Linkage Map of the Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) Reveals Extensive Synteny and Gene-Order Conservation During 100 Million Years of Avian Evolution
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Genetics. - 0016-6731 .- 1943-2631. ; 179, s. 1479-1495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By taking advantage of a recently developed reference markerset for avian genome analysis we have constructed a gene-basedgenetic map of the collared flycatcher, an important "ecologicalmodel" for studies of life-history evolution, sexual selection,speciation, and quantitative genetics. A pedigree of 322 birdsfrom a natural population was genotyped for 384 single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) from 170 protein-coding genes and 71 microsatellites.Altogether, 147 gene markers and 64 microsatellites form 33linkage groups with a total genetic distance of 1787 cM. Malerecombination rates are, on average, 22% higher than femalerates (total distance 1982 vs. 1627 cM). The ability to anchorthe collared flycatcher map with the chicken genome via thegene-based SNPs revealed an extraordinary degree of both syntenyand gene-order conservation during avian evolution. The greatmajority of chicken chromosomes correspond to a single linkagegroup in collared flycatchers, with only a few cases of inter-and intrachromosomal rearrangements. The rate of chromosomaldiversification, fissions/fusions, and inversions combined isthus considerably lower in birds (0.05/MY) than in mammals (0.6–2.0/MY).A dearth of repeat elements, known to promote chromosomal breakage,in avian genomes may contribute to their stability. The degreeof genome stability is likely to have important consequencesfor general evolutionary patterns and may explain, for example,the comparatively slow rate by which genetic incompatibilityamong lineages of birds evolves.
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2.
  • Backström, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • A high-density scan of the Z chromosome in ficedula flycatchers reveals candidate loci for diversifying selection
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Evolution. - 0014-3820 .- 1558-5646. ; 64:12, s. 3461-3475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Theoretical and empirical data suggest that genes located on sex chromosomes may play an important role both for sexually selected traits and for traits involved in the build-up of hybrid incompatibilities. We investigated patterns of genetic variation in 73 genes located on the Z chromosomes of two species of the flycatcher genus Ficedula, the pied flycatcher and the collared flycatcher. Sequence data were evaluated for signs of selection potentially related to genomic differentiation in these young sister species, which hybridize despite reduced fitness of hybrids. Seven loci were significantly more divergent between the two species than expected under neutrality and they also displayed reduced nucleotide diversity, consistent with having been influenced by directional selection. Two of the detected candidate regions contain genes that are associated with plumage coloration in birds. Plumage characteristics play an important role in species recognition in these flycatchers suggesting that the detected genes may have been involved in the evolution of sexual isolation between the species.
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3.
  • Backström, Niclas (författare)
  • Adaptive evolution in passerine birds
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. - 1476-9506 .- 1476-9506. - 9780470015902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Adaptive evolution is the process whereby mutations that provide the carrier with a selective advantage increase in frequency in a population via the process of natural selection. Passerines are widespread, common and long-term targets for field study and they demonstrate a copious diversity in physiological and morphological adaptations to varying habitats, for example, beak size and wing shape, and they are, therefore, an important study system to understand adaptive evolution. Recent technological advancements have made it easier to investigate the mechanistic and evolutionary underpinnings of adaptive evolution by allowing genome sequence data to be generated in almost any species of interest. However, it is important to assess the contribution of neutral forces like demographic events and GC-biased gene conversion before concluding that selection has shaped the patterns observed in genomic data. Initial analyses in passerines have identified candidate genes that might be involved in, for example, song learning, beak morphology, disease resistance, high-altitude adaptation and exploratory behavior, but functional verifications are needed to establish a causative relationship between the identified genes and the traits. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Passerines are widespread, generally common and easy targets for field study and they demonstrate a copious diversity in physiological and morphological adaptations to varying habitats and they have, therefore, played an important role in previous studies concerning behaviour, ecology and evolution. * A full understanding of passerine adaptations requires an integrative approach aiming at identifying and characterising both proximate (mechanistic) and ultimate (evolutionary) underpinnings to adaptive traits. * The recent advancements in molecular techniques allows for using both comparative genomics, expression profiling, candidate gene approaches and classical association and QTL mapping strategies to identify the genetic basis of adaptive traits in passerines. * Groundwork studies of ecological genetics and genomics using comparative approaches, expression profiling and candidate genes are now accumulating and in a handful of cases we have an idea about the genetic basis of adaptive traits related to, for example, dietary specialisation, learning, exploratory behaviour, immune response and high-altitude adaptations in passerines. * Demographic history and other neutral processes, for example, GC-biased gene conversion (gcBGC), may mimic signals of selection and it is important to verify findings of adaptive evolution using independent methods.
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4.
  • Backström, Niclas, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • Cis-regulatory sequence variation and association with Mycoplasma load in natural populations of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 3:3, s. 655-666
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Characterization of the genetic basis of fitness traits in natural populations is important for understanding how organisms adapt to the changing environment and to novel events, such as epizootics. However, candidate fitness-influencing loci, such as regulatory regions, are usually unavailable in nonmodel species. Here, we analyze sequence data from targeted resequencing of the cis-regulatory regions of three candidate genes for disease resistance (CD74, HSP90α, and LCP1) in populations of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) historically exposed (Alabama) and naïve (Arizona) to Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Our study, the first to quantify variation in regulatory regions in wild birds, reveals that the upstream regions of CD74 and HSP90α are GC-rich, with the former exhibiting unusually low sequence variation for this species. We identified two SNPs, located in a GC-rich region immediately upstream of an inferred promoter site in the gene HSP90α, that were significantly associated with Mycoplasma pathogen load in the two populations. The SNPs are closely linked and situated in potential regulatory sequences: one in a binding site for the transcription factor nuclear NFYα and the other in a dinucleotide microsatellite ((GC)6). The genotype associated with pathogen load in the putative NFYα binding site was significantly overrepresented in the Alabama birds. However, we did not see strong effects of selection at this SNP, perhaps because selection has acted on standing genetic variation over an extremely short time in a highly recombining region. Our study is a useful starting point to explore functional relationships between sequence polymorphisms, gene expression, and phenotypic traits, such as pathogen resistance that affect fitness in the wild.
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5.
  • Backström, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence from a House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) Spleen Transcriptome for Adaptive Evolution and Biased Gene Conversion in Passerine Birds
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 30:5, s. 1046-1050
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identifying genes influenced by natural selection can provide information about lineage-specific adaptations, and transcriptomes generated by next-generation sequencing are a useful resource for identifying such genes. Here, we utilize a spleen transcriptome for the house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), an emerging model for sexual selection and disease ecology, together with previously sequenced avian genomes (chicken, turkey, and zebra finch), to investigate lineage-specific adaptations within birds. An analysis of 4,398 orthologous genes revealed a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions and significantly higher GC content in passerines than in galliforms, an observation deviating from strictly neutral expectations but consistent with an effect of biased gene conversion on the evolutionary rate in passerines. These data also showed that genes exhibiting signs of positive selection and fast evolution in passerines have functional roles related to fat metabolism, neurodevelopment, and ion binding.
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6.
  • Backström, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • Gene conversion drives the evolution of HINTW, an ampliconic gene on the female-specific avian W chromosome.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Mol Biol Evol. - 0737-4038. ; 22:10, s. 1992-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The HINTW gene on the female-specific W chromosome of chicken and other birds is amplified and present in numerous copies. Moreover, as HINTW is distinctly different from its homolog on the Z chromosome (HINTZ), is a candidate gene in avian sex determination, and evolves rapidly under positive selection, it shows several common features to ampliconic and testis-specific genes on the mammalian Y chromosome. A phylogenetic analysis within galliform birds (chicken, turkey, quail, and pheasant) shows that individual HINTW copies within each species are more similar to each other than to gene copies of related species. Such convergent evolution is most easily explained by recurrent events of gene conversion, the rate of which we estimated at 10(-6)-10(-5) per site and generation. A significantly higher GC content of HINTW than of other W-linked genes is consistent with biased gene conversion increasing the fixation probability of mutations involving G and C nucleotides. Furthermore, and as a likely consequence, the neutral substitution rate is almost twice as high in HINTW as in other W-linked genes. The region on W encompassing the HINTW gene cluster is not covered in the initial assembly of the chicken genome, but analysis of raw sequence reads indicates that gene copy number is significantly higher than a previous estimate of 40. While sexual selection is one of several factors that potentially affect the evolution of ampliconic, male-specific genes on the mammalian Y chromosome, data from HINTW provide evidence that gene amplification followed by gene conversion can evolve in female-specific chromosomes in the absence of sexual selection. The presence of multiple and highly similar copies of HINTW may be related to protein function, but, more generally, amplification and conversion offers a means to the avoidance of accumulation of deleterious mutations in nonrecombining chromosomes.
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7.
  • Backström, Niclas, 1969- (författare)
  • Gene Mapping in Ficedula Flycatchers
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In order to get full understanding of how evolution proceeds in natural settings it is necessary to reveal the genetic basis of the phenotypic traits that play a role for individual fitness in different environments. There are a few possible approaches, most of which stem from traditional mapping efforts in domestic animals and other model species. Here we set the stage for gene mapping in natural populations of birds by producing a large number of anchor markers of broad utility for avian genetical research and use these markers to generate a genetic map of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). The map reveals a very high degree of synteny and gene order conservation between bird species separated by as much as 100 million years. This is encouraging for later stages of mapping procedures in natural populations since this means that there is a possibility to use the information from already characterized avian genomes to track candidate genes for detailed analysis in non-model species. One interesting aspect of the low degree of rearrangements occurring in the avian genomes is that this could play a role in the low rate of hybridization barriers formed in birds compared to for instance mammals. An analysis of Z-linked gene markers reveals relatively long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) in collared flycatchers compared to other outbred species but still, LD seems to decay within < 50 kb indicating that > 20.000 markers would be needed to cover the genome in an association scan. A detailed scan of 74 Z-linked genes evenly distributed along the chromosome in both the collared flycatcher and the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) indicates that there are regions that evolve under directional selection, regions that might harbor loci of importance for adaptive divergence and/or hybrid inviability.
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8.
  • Backström, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic mapping in a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) : Conserved synteny but gene order rearrangements on the avian Z chromosome
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Genetics. - 0016-6731 .- 1943-2631. ; 174:1, s. 377-386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Data from completely sequenced genomes are likely to open the way for novel studies of the genetics of nonmodel organisms, in particular when it comes to the identification and analysis of genes responsible for traits that are under selection in natural populations. Here we use the draft sequence of the chicken genome as a starting point for linkage mapping in a wild bird species, the collared flycatcher-one of the most well-studied avian species in ecological and evolutionary research. A pedigree of 365 flycatchers was established and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in 23 genes selected from (and spread over most of) the chicken Z chromosome. All genes were also found to be located on the Z chromosome in the collared flycatcher, confirming conserved synteny at the level of gene content across distantly related avian lineages. This high degree of conservation mimics the situation seen for the mammalian X chromosome and may thus be a general feature in sex chromosome evolution, irrespective of whether there is male or female heterogamety. Alternatively, such unprecedented chromosomal conservation may be characteristic of most chromosomes in avian genome evolution. However, several internal rearrangements were observed, meaning that the transfer of map information from chicken to nonmodel bird species cannot always assume conserved gene orders. Interestingly, the rate of recombination on the Z chromosome of collared flycatchers was only similar to 50% that of chicken, challenging the widely held view that birds generally have high recombination rates.
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9.
  • Backström, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • Genomics of natural bird populations : a gene-based set of reference markers evenly spread across the avian genome
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - 0962-1083 .- 1365-294X. ; 17:4, s. 964-980
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although there is growing interest to take genomics into the complex realms of natural populations, there is a general shortage of genomic resources and tools available for wild species. This applies not at least to birds, for which genomic approaches should be helpful to questions such as adaptation, speciation and population genetics. In this study, we describe a genome-wide reference set of conserved avian gene markers, broadly applicable across birds. By aligning protein-coding sequences from the recently assembled chicken genome with orthologous sequences in zebra finch, we identified particularly conserved exonic regions flanking introns of suitable size for subsequent amplification and sequencing. Primers were designed for 242 gene markers evenly distributed across the chicken genome, with a mean inter-marker interval of 4.2 Mb. Between 78% and 93% of the markers amplified a specific product in five species tested (chicken, peregrine falcon, collared flycatcher, great reed warbler and blue tit). Two hundred markers were sequenced in collared flycatcher, yielding a total of 122.41 kb of genomic DNA sequence (12096 bp coding sequence and 110 314 bp noncoding). Intron size of collared flycatcher and chicken was highly correlated, as was GC content. A polymorphism screening using these markers in a panel of 10 unrelated collared flycatchers identified 871 single nucleotide polymorphisms (pi = 0.0029) and 33 indels (mainly very short). Avian genome characteristics such as uniform genome size and low rate of syntenic rearrangements suggest that this marker set will find broad utility as a genome-wide reference resource for molecular ecological and population genomic analysis of birds. We envision that it will be particularly useful for obtaining large-scale orthologous targets in different species--important in, for instance, phylogenetics--and for large-scale identification of evenly distributed single nucleotide polymorphisms needed in linkage mapping or in studies of gene flow and hybridization.
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10.
  • Backström, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • Inferring the demographic history of European Ficedula flycatcher populations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology. - 1471-2148 .- 1471-2148. ; 13, s. 2-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Inference of population and species histories and population stratification using genetic data is important for discriminating between different speciation scenarios and for correct interpretation of genome scans for signs of adaptive evolution and trait association. Here we use data from 24 intronic loci re-sequenced in population samples of two closely related species, the pied flycatcher and the collared flycatcher. Results: We applied Isolation-Migration models, assignment analyses and estimated the genetic differentiation and diversity between species and between populations within species. The data indicate a divergence time between the species of <1 million years, significantly shorter than previous estimates using mtDNA, point to a scenario with unidirectional gene-flow from the pied flycatcher into the collared flycatcher and imply that barriers to hybridisation are still permeable in a recently established hybrid zone. Furthermore, we detect significant population stratification, predominantly between the Spanish population and other pied flycatcher populations. Conclusions: Our results provide further evidence for a divergence process where different genomic regions may be at different stages of speciation. We also conclude that forthcoming analyses of genotype-phenotype relations in these ecological model species should be designed to take population stratification into account.
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