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Sökning: WFRF:(Bakay M)

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  • Fischer, M Dominik, et al. (författare)
  • Definition of the unique human extraocular muscle allotype by expression profiling.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Physiol Genomics. - 1531-2267. ; 22:3, s. 283-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a unique group of specialized muscles that are anatomically and physiologically distinct from other skeletal muscles. Perhaps the most striking characteristic of the EOMs is their differential sensitivity to disease. EOMs are spared in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) despite widespread involvement of other skeletal muscles. Conversely, they are early and prominent targets in myasthenia gravis and mitochondrial myopathies. It is unclear how EOMs achieve such specialization or a differential response to diseases; however, this has been attributed to a unique, group-specific pattern of gene expression or "allotype." To begin to address these issues as well as define the human EOM allotype, we analyzed the human EOM transcriptome using oligonucleotide-based expression profiling. Three hundred thirty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in EOM compared with quadriceps femoris limb muscle, using a twofold cutoff. Functional characterization revealed expression patterns corresponding to known metabolic and structural properties of EOMs such as expression of EOM-specific myosin heavy chain (MYH13) and high neural, vascular, and mitochondrial content, suggesting that the profiling was sensitive and specific. Genes related to myogenesis, stem cells, and apoptosis were detected at high levels in normal human EOMs, suggesting that efficient and continuous regeneration and/or myogenesis may be a mechanism by which the EOMs remain clinically and pathologically spared in diseases such as DMD. Taken together, this study provides insight into how human EOMs achieve their unique structural, metabolic, and pathophysiological properties.
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  • Soleimanpour, Scott A, et al. (författare)
  • The diabetes susceptibility gene clec16a regulates mitophagy.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cell. - : Cell Press. - 1097-4172. ; 157:7, s. 1577-1590
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clec16a has been identified as a disease susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and adrenal dysfunction, but its function is unknown. Here we report that Clec16a is a membrane-associated endosomal protein that interacts with E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1. Loss of Clec16a leads to an increase in the Nrdp1 target Parkin, a master regulator of mitophagy. Islets from mice with pancreas-specific deletion of Clec16a have abnormal mitochondria with reduced oxygen consumption and ATP concentration, both of which are required for normal β cell function. Indeed, pancreatic Clec16a is required for normal glucose-stimulated insulin release. Moreover, patients harboring a diabetogenic SNP in the Clec16a gene have reduced islet Clec16a expression and reduced insulin secretion. Thus, Clec16a controls β cell function and prevents diabetes by controlling mitophagy. This pathway could be targeted for prevention and control of diabetes and may extend to the pathogenesis of other Clec16a- and Parkin-associated diseases.
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