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Sökning: WFRF:(Baker Susan)

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1.
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2.
  • Sawcer, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 476:7359, s. 214-219
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
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3.
  • Muscarella, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • The global abundance of tree palms
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography. - : Wiley. - 1466-822X .- 1466-8238. ; 29:9, s. 1495-1514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimPalms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change.LocationTropical and subtropical moist forests.Time periodCurrent.Major taxa studiedPalms (Arecaceae).MethodsWe assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co‐occurring non‐palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure.ResultsOn average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long‐term climate stability. Life‐form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non‐tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above‐ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work.ConclusionsTree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.
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4.
  • Bentley, Amy R., et al. (författare)
  • Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of 387,272 individuals identifies new loci associated with serum lipids
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:4, s. 636-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.
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5.
  • Falster, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • AusTraits, a curated plant trait database for the Australian flora
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Nature Portfolio. - 2052-4463. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We introduce the AusTraits database - a compilation of values of plant traits for taxa in the Australian flora (hereafter AusTraits). AusTraits synthesises data on 448 traits across 28,640 taxa from field campaigns, published literature, taxonomic monographs, and individual taxon descriptions. Traits vary in scope from physiological measures of performance (e.g. photosynthetic gas exchange, water-use efficiency) to morphological attributes (e.g. leaf area, seed mass, plant height) which link to aspects of ecological variation. AusTraits contains curated and harmonised individual- and species-level measurements coupled to, where available, contextual information on site properties and experimental conditions. This article provides information on version 3.0.2 of AusTraits which contains data for 997,808 trait-by-taxon combinations. We envision AusTraits as an ongoing collaborative initiative for easily archiving and sharing trait data, which also provides a template for other national or regional initiatives globally to fill persistent gaps in trait knowledge.
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6.
  • Fresard, Laure, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of rare-disease genes using blood transcriptome sequencing and large control cohorts
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1078-8956 .- 1546-170X. ; 25:6, s. 911-919
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is estimated that 350 million individuals worldwide suffer from rare diseases, which are predominantly caused by mutation in a single gene(1). The current molecular diagnostic rate is estimated at 50%, with whole-exome sequencing (WES) among the most successful approaches(2-5). For patients in whom WES is uninformative, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has shown diagnostic utility in specific tissues and diseases(6-8). This includes muscle biopsies from patients with undiagnosed rare muscle disorders(6,9), and cultured fibroblasts from patients with mitochondrial disorders(7). However, for many individuals, biopsies are not performed for clinical care, and tissues are difficult to access. We sought to assess the utility of RNA-seq from blood as a diagnostic tool for rare diseases of different pathophysiologies. We generated whole-blood RNA-seq from 94 individuals with undiagnosed rare diseases spanning 16 diverse disease categories. We developed a robust approach to compare data from these individuals with large sets of RNA-seq data for controls (n = 1,594 unrelated controls and n = 49 family members) and demonstrated the impacts of expression, splicing, gene and variant filtering strategies on disease gene identification. Across our cohort, we observed that RNA-seq yields a 7.5% diagnostic rate, and an additional 16.7% with improved candidate gene resolution.
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7.
  • Nolte, I. M., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic loci associated with heart rate variability and their effects on cardiac disease risk
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reduced cardiac vagal control reflected in low heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with greater risks for cardiac morbidity and mortality. In two-stage meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for three HRV traits in up to 53,174 individuals of European ancestry, we detect 17 genome-wide significant SNPs in eight loci. HRV SNPs tag non-synonymous SNPs (in NDUFA11 and KIAA1755), expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) (influencing GNG11, RGS6 and NEO1), or are located in genes preferentially expressed in the sinoatrial node (GNG11, RGS6 and HCN4). Genetic risk scores account for 0.9 to 2.6% of the HRV variance. Significant genetic correlation is found for HRV with heart rate (-0.74 < r(g) < -0.55) and blood pressure (-0.35 < r(g) < -0.20). These findings provide clinically relevant biological insight into heritable variation in vagal heart rhythm regulation, with a key role for genetic variants (GNG11, RGS6) that influence G-protein heterotrimer action in GIRK-channel induced pacemaker membrane hyperpolarization.
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8.
  • Shi, Liu, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery and validation of plasma proteomic biomarkers relating to brain amyloid burden by SOMAscan assay.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - : Elsevier. - 1552-5279 .- 1552-5260. ; 15:11, s. 1478-1488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plasma proteins have been widely studied as candidate biomarkers to predict brain amyloid deposition to increase recruitment efficiency in secondary prevention clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease. Most such biomarker studies are targeted to specific proteins or are biased toward high abundant proteins.4001 plasma proteins were measured in two groups of participants (discovery group = 516, replication group = 365) selected from the European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery study, all of whom had measures of amyloid.A panel of proteins (n = 44), along with age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4, predicted brain amyloid deposition with good performance in both the discovery group (area under the curve = 0.78) and the replication group (area under the curve = 0.68). Furthermore, a causal relationship between amyloid and tau was confirmed by Mendelian randomization.The results suggest that high-dimensional plasma protein testing could be a useful and reproducible approach for measuring brain amyloid deposition.
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9.
  • Westwood, Sarah, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of Plasma Proteomic Biomarkers Relating to Brain Amyloid Burden in the EMIF-Alzheimer's Disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery Cohort.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - : IOS Press. - 1875-8908 .- 1387-2877. ; 74:1, s. 213-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously investigated, discovered, and replicated plasma protein biomarkers for use to triage potential trials participants for PET or cerebrospinal fluid measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. This study sought to undertake validation of these candidate plasma biomarkers in a large, multi-center sample collection. Targeted plasma analyses of 34 proteins with prior evidence for prediction of in vivo pathology were conducted in up to 1,000 samples from cognitively healthy elderly individuals, people with mild cognitive impairment, and in patients with AD-type dementia, selected from the EMIF-AD catalogue. Proteins were measured using Luminex xMAP, ELISA, and Meso Scale Discovery assays. Seven proteins replicated in their ability to predict in vivo amyloid pathology. These proteins form a biomarker panel that, along with age, could significantly discriminate between individuals with high and low amyloid pathology with an area under the curve of 0.74. The performance of this biomarker panel remained consistent when tested in apolipoprotein E ɛ4 non-carrier individuals only. This blood-based panel is biologically relevant, measurable using practical immunocapture arrays, and could significantly reduce the cost incurred to clinical trials through screen failure.
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10.
  • Adhikari, Subash, et al. (författare)
  • A high-stringency blueprint of the human proteome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE RESEARCH. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) launched the Human Proteome Project (HPP) in 2010, creating an international framework for global collaboration, data sharing, quality assurance and enhancing accurate annotation of the genome-encoded proteome. During the subsequent decade, the HPP established collaborations, developed guidelines and metrics, and undertook reanalysis of previously deposited community data, continuously increasing the coverage of the human proteome. On the occasion of the HPP's tenth anniversary, we here report a 90.4% complete high-stringency human proteome blueprint. This knowledge is essential for discerning molecular processes in health and disease, as we demonstrate by highlighting potential roles the human proteome plays in our understanding, diagnosis and treatment of cancers, cardiovascular and infectious diseases. The Human Proteome Project (HPP) was launched in 2010 to enhance accurate annotation of the genome-encoded proteome. Ten years later, the HPP releases its first blueprint of the human proteome, annotating 90% of all known proteins at high-stringency and discussing the implications of proteomics for precision medicine.
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