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Sökning: WFRF:(Baron Jeffrey)

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  • Wood, Andrew R, et al. (författare)
  • Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:11, s. 1173-1186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
  • Gkourogianni, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical Characterization of Patients With Autosomal Dominant Short Stature due to Aggrecan Mutations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 102:2, s. 460-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Heterozygous mutations in the aggrecan gene (ACAN) cause autosomal dominant short stature with accelerated skeletal maturation. Objective: We sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum and response to growth-promoting therapies. Patients and Methods: One hundred three individuals (57 females, 46 males) from 20 families with autosomal dominant short stature and heterozygous ACAN mutations were identified and confirmed using whole-exome sequencing, targeted next-generation sequencing, and/or Sanger sequencing. Clinical information was collected from the medical records. Results: Identified ACAN variants showed perfect cosegregation with phenotype. Adult individuals had mildly disproportionate short stature [median height, -2.8 standard deviation score (SDS); range, -5.9 to -0.9] and a history of early growth cessation. The condition was frequently associated with early-onset osteoarthritis (12 families) and intervertebral disc disease (9 families). No apparent genotype-phenotype correlation was found between the type of ACAN mutation and the presence of joint complaints. Childhood height was less affected (median height, -2.0 SDS; range, -4.2 to -0.6). Most children with ACAN mutations had advanced bone age (bone age - chronologic age; median, + 1.3 years; range, + 0.0 to + 3.7 years). Nineteen individuals had received growth hormone therapy with some evidence of increased growth velocity. Conclusions: Heterozygous ACAN mutations result in a phenotypic spectrum ranging from mild and proportionate short stature to a mild skeletal dysplasia with disproportionate short stature and brachydactyly. Many affected individuals developed early-onset osteoarthritis and degenerative disc disease, suggesting dysfunction of the articular cartilage and intervertebral disc cartilage. Additional studies are needed to determine the optimal treatment strategy for these patients.
  • Jee, Youn Hee, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of Short Stature
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America (Print). - Saunders Elsevier. - 0889-8529. ; 46:2, s. 259-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Short stature is a common and heterogeneous condition that is often genetic in etiology. For most children with genetic short stature, the specific molecular causes remain unknown; but with advances in exome/genome sequencing and bioinformatics approaches, new genetic causes of growth disorders have been identified, contributing to the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of longitudinal bone growth and growth failure. Identifying new genetic causes of growth disorders has the potential to improve diagnosis, prognostic accuracy, and individualized management, and help avoid unnecessary testing for endocrine and other disorders.
  • Jee, Youn Hee, et al. (författare)
  • Mir-374-5p, mir-379-5p, and mir-503-5p regulate proliferation and hypertrophic differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes in male rats
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Endocrinology. - Cary, NC, USA : Oxford University Press. - 0013-7227. ; 159:3, s. 1469-1478
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Growth plate chondrocytes undergo sequential differentiation to form the resting (RZ), proliferative (PZ), and hypertrophic zones (HZ). The important role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the growth plate was previously revealed by cartilage-specific ablation of Dicer, an enzyme essential for biogenesis of many miRNAs. To identify specific miRNAs that regulate differentiation of PZ chondrocytes to HZ chondrocytes, we microdissected individual growth plate zones from juvenile rats and performed miRNA profiling using a solution hybridization method and also miRNA-seq. Thirty-four miRNAs were differentially expressed between PZ and HZ and we hypothesized that some of the miRNAs that are preferentially expressed in PZ may serve to promote proliferation and inhibit hypertrophic differentiation. Consistent with this hypothesis, transfection of inhibitors for four of these miRNAs (mir-369-3p, mir-374-5p, mir-379-5p, mir-503-5p) decreased proliferation in primary epiphyseal chondrocytes. The inhibitors for three of these miRNAs (mir-374-5p, mir-379-5p, mir-503-5p) also increased expression of multiple genes that are associated with chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. We next hypothesized that preferential expression of these miRNAs in PZ is driven by the PTHrP concentration gradient across the growth plate. Consistent with this hypothesis, treatment of primary chondrocytes with a PTH/PTHrP receptor agonist, PTH1-34, increased expression of mir-374-5p, mir-379-5p, and mir-503-5p. Taken together, our findings suggest that the PTHrP concentration gradient across the growth plate induces differential expression of mir-374-5p, mir-379-5p and mir-503-5p between PZ and HZ. In PZ, the higher expression levels of these miRNAs promote proliferation and inhibit hypertrophic differentiation. In HZ, downregulation of these miRNAs inhibits proliferation and promotes hypertrophic differentiation.
  • Jee, Youn Hee, et al. (författare)
  • New developments in the genetic diagnosis of short stature
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Current opinion in pediatrics. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1040-8703. ; 30:4, s. 541-547
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Purpose of review: Genome-wide approaches including genome-wide association studies as well as exome and genome sequencing represent powerful new approaches that have improved our ability to identify genetic causes of human disorders. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in the genetic causes of short stature.Recent findings: In addition to SHOX deficiency which is one of the most common causes of isolated short stature, PAPPA2, ACAN, NPPC, NPR2, PTPN11 (and other rasopathies), FBN1, IHH and BMP2 have been identified in isolated growth disorders with or without other mild skeletal findings. In addition, novel genetic causes of syndromic short stature have been discovered, including pathogenic variants in BRCA1, DONSON, AMMECR1, NFIX, SLC25A24, and FN1.Summary: Isolated growth disorders are often monogenic. Specific genetic causes typically have specific biochemical and/or phenotype characteristics which are diagnostically helpful. Identification of additional subjects with a specific genetic cause of short stature often leads to a broadening of the known clinical spectrum for that condition. The identification of novel genetic causes of short stature has provided important insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of growth failure.
  • Lui, Julian C., et al. (författare)
  • EZH1 and EZH2 promote skeletal growth by repressing inhibitors of chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - London, United Kingdom : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Histone methyltransferases EZH1 and EZH2 catalyse the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27), which serves as an epigenetic signal for chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. Genome-wide associated studies have implicated EZH2 in the control of height and mutations in EZH2 cause Weaver syndrome, which includes skeletal overgrowth. Here we show that the combined loss of Ezh1 and Ezh2 in chondrocytes severely impairs skeletal growth in mice. Both of the principal processes underlying growth plate chondrogenesis, chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy, are compromised. The decrease in chondrocyte proliferation is due in part to derepression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors Ink4a/b, while ineffective chondrocyte hypertrophy is due to the suppression of IGF signalling by the increased expression of IGF-binding proteins. Collectively, our findings reveal a critical role for H3K27 methylation in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy in the growth plate, which are the central determinants of skeletal growth.
  • Lui, Julian C., et al. (författare)
  • Ezh2 mutations found in the Weaver overgrowth syndrome cause a partial loss of H3K27 histone methyltransferase activity
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Cary, NC, United States : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X. ; 103:4, s. 1470-1478
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, advanced bone age, characteristic facies, and variable intellectual disability. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in EZH2, a histone methyltransferase responsible for H3K27 trimethylation. However, no early truncating mutations have been identified, suggesting that null mutations do not cause Weaver syndrome.Objective: To test alternative hypotheses that EZH2 variants found in Weaver syndrome either cause a gain of function or a partial loss of function.Design: Exome sequencing was performed in a boy with tall stature, advanced bone age, and mild dysmorphic features. Mutant or wild-type EZH2 protein was expressed in mouse growth plate chondrocytes with or without endogenous EZH2, and enzymatic activity was measured. A mouse model was generated, and histone methylation was assessed in heterozygous and homozygous embryos.Results: A de novo missense EZH2 mutation (c.1876G>A (p.Val626Met)) was identified in the proband. When expressed in growth plate chondrocytes, the mutant protein showed decreased histone methyltransferase activity. A mouse model carrying this EZH2 mutation was generated using CRISPR/Cas9. Homozygotes showed perinatal lethality while heterozygotes were viable, fertile, and showed mild overgrowth. Both homozygous and heterozygous embryos showed decreased H3K27 methylation.Conclusion: We generated a mouse model with the same mutation as our patient and found that it recapitulates the Weaver overgrowth phenotype, and demonstrated that EZH2 mutations found in Weaver syndrome cause a partial loss of function.
  • Maison-Blanche, Pierre, et al. (författare)
  • An open-label study to investigate the cardiac safety profile of cabazitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology. - 0344-5704 .- 1432-0843. ; 73:6, s. 1241-1252
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study assessed the cardiovascular safety of cabazitaxel, based on thorough evaluation of QT and non-QT variables, and the relationship between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic electrocardiographic (ECG) profiles and the occurrence of Grade a parts per thousand yen3 cardiovascular adverse events. Patients with advanced solid tumors were treated with cabazitaxel 25 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks. Digital ECG recordings were obtained during Cycle 1 over 24 h after dosing. The primary end point was effect of cabazitaxel on QT interval corrected by the Fridericia formula (QTcF). Secondary end points were additional ECG parameters (QT, PR and QRS intervals, and heart rate), plasma pharmacokinetics of cabazitaxel and overall clinical safety. The pharmacodynamic (ECG) population included 94 patients. In 63 patients with a full 24-h ECG evaluation, the maximum upper bound of 90 % confidence interval (CI) for mean QTcF change from baseline was 7.46 ms (mean 4.8 ms), occurring at 1 h 30 min post-infusion. The slope of QTcF change from baseline versus cabazitaxel concentration was slightly negative (-0.012 [95 % CI -0.017; -0.008], equivalent to a 1.2 ms decrease per 100 ng/mL increase in cabazitaxel concentration). For non-QT variables, no effect was noted. No Grade a parts per thousand yen3 cardiac adverse events were observed; Grade a parts per thousand yen3 hypotension and lymphocele occurred in two patients and one patient, respectively. These results suggest that cabazitaxel has no clinically significant cardiovascular adverse effects in patients with advanced solid tumors.
  • Tatsi, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Aggrecan Mutations in Nonfamilial Short Stature and Short Stature Without Accelerated Skeletal Maturation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Endocrine Society. - Endocrine Society. ; 1:8, s. 1006-1011
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aggrecan, a proteoglycan, is an important component of cartilage extracellular matrix, including that of the growth plate. Heterozygous mutations in ACAN, the gene encoding aggrecan, cause autosomal dominant short stature, accelerated skeletal maturation, and joint disease. The inheritance pattern and the presence of bone age equal to or greater than chronological age have been consistent features, serving as diagnostic clues. From family 1, a 6-year-old boy presented with short stature [height standard deviation score (SDS), -1.75] and bone age advanced by 3 years. There was no family history of short stature (height SDS: father, -0.76; mother, 0.7). Exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing identified a de novo novel heterozygous frameshift mutation in ACAN (c.6404delC: p.A2135Dfs). From family 2, a 12-year-old boy was evaluated for short stature (height SDS, -3.9). His bone age at the time of genetic evaluation was approximately 1 year less than his chronological age. Family history was consistent with an autosomal dominant inheritance of short stature, with several affected members also showing early-onset osteoarthritis. Exome sequencing, confirmed by Sanger sequencing, identified a novel nonsense mutation in ACAN (c.4852C>T: p.Q1618X), which cosegregated with the phenotype. In conclusion, patients with ACAN mutations may present with nonfamilial short stature and with bone age less than chronological age. These findings expand the known phenotypic spectrum of heterozygous ACAN mutations and indicate that this diagnosis should be considered in children without a family history of short stature and in children without accelerated skeletal maturation.
  • Zabriskie, Matthew S., et al. (författare)
  • BCR-ABL1 Compound Mutations Combining Key Kinase Domain Positions Confer Clinical Resistance to Ponatinib in Ph Chromosome-Positive Leukemia
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Cell. - 1535-6108. ; 26:3, s. 428-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ponatinib is the only currently approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that suppresses all BCR-ABL1 single mutants in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemia, including the recalcitrant BCR-ABL1(T315I) mutant. However, emergence of compound mutations in a BCR-ABL1 allele may confer ponatinib resistance. We found that clinically reported BCR-ABL1 compound mutants center on 12 key positions and confer varying resistance to imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, ponatinib, rebastinib, and bosutinib. T315I-inclusive compound mutants confer high-level resistance to TKIs, including ponatinib. In vitro resistance profiling was predictive of treatment outcomes in Ph+ leukemia patients. Structural explanations for compound mutation-based resistance were obtained through molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings demonstrate that BCR-ABL1 compound mutants confer different levels of TKI resistance, necessitating rational treatment selection to optimize clinical outcome.
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