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Sökning: WFRF:(Barthel P.)

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  • Wild, W., et al. (författare)
  • Millimetron—a large Russian-European submillimeter space observatory
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Experimental Astronomy. - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 23:1, s. 221-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Millimetron is a Russian-led 12 m diameter submillimeter and far-infrared space observatory which is included in the Space Plan of the Russian Federation for launch around 2017. With its large collecting area and state-of-the-art receivers, it will enable unique science and allow at least one order of magnitude improvement with respect to the Herschel Space Observatory. Millimetron will be operated in two basic observing modes: as a single-dish observatory, and as an element of a ground-space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) system. As single-dish, angular resolutions on the order of 3 to 12 arc sec will be achieved and spectral resolutions of up to a million employing heterodyne techniques. As VLBI antenna, the chosen elliptical orbit will provide extremely large VLBI baselines (beyond 300,000 km) resulting in micro-arc second angular resolution.
  • Jansen, Willemijn J, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Cerebral Amyloid-β Aggregation With Cognitive Functioning in Persons Without Dementia.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6238 .- 2168-622X. ; 75:1, s. 84-95
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early event in Alzheimer disease (AD). Understanding the association between amyloid aggregation and cognitive manifestation in persons without dementia is important for a better understanding of the course of AD and for the design of prevention trials.To investigate whether amyloid-β aggregation is associated with cognitive functioning in persons without dementia.This cross-sectional study included 2908 participants with normal cognition and 4133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from 53 studies in the multicenter Amyloid Biomarker Study. Normal cognition was defined as having no cognitive concerns for which medical help was sought and scores within the normal range on cognitive tests. Mild cognitive impairment was diagnosed according to published criteria. Study inclusion began in 2013 and is ongoing. Data analysis was performed in January 2017.Global cognitive performance as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and episodic memory performance as assessed by a verbal word learning test. Amyloid aggregation was measured with positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and dichotomized as negative (normal) or positive (abnormal) according to study-specific cutoffs. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between amyloid aggregation and low cognitive scores (MMSE score ≤27 or memory z score≤-1.28) and to assess whether this association was moderated by age, sex, educational level, or apolipoprotein E genotype.Among 2908 persons with normal cognition (mean [SD] age, 67.4 [12.8] years), amyloid positivity was associated with low memory scores after age 70 years (mean difference in amyloid positive vs negative, 4% [95% CI, 0%-7%] at 72 years and 21% [95% CI, 10%-33%] at 90 years) but was not associated with low MMSE scores (mean difference, 3% [95% CI, -1% to 6%], P = .16). Among 4133 patients with MCI (mean [SD] age, 70.2 [8.5] years), amyloid positivity was associated with low memory (mean difference, 16% [95% CI, 12%-20%], P < .001) and low MMSE (mean difference, 14% [95% CI, 12%-17%], P < .001) scores, and this association decreased with age. Low cognitive scores had limited utility for screening of amyloid positivity in persons with normal cognition and those with MCI. In persons with normal cognition, the age-related increase in low memory score paralleled the age-related increase in amyloid positivity with an intervening period of 10 to 15 years.Although low memory scores are an early marker of amyloid positivity, their value as a screening measure for early AD among persons without dementia is limited.
  • Penston, M. V., et al. (författare)
  • The extended narrow line region of NGC 4151. I. Emission line ratios and their implications
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 236:1, s. 53-6262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper presents the first results from long-slit spectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 which give average diagnostic ratios of weak lines in the extended narrow line region (ENLR) of that galaxy and the first direct density measurement in an ENLR. These data confirm that the ENLR is kinematically undisturbed gas in the disc of the galaxy which is illuminated by an ionizing continuum stronger by a factor of 13 than a power law interpolated between observed ultraviolet and X-ray fluxes. Explanations of this apparent excess include a hot thermal continuum, time variations and an anisotropic radiation field. The authors give reasons for favouring anisotropy which might be caused by shadowing by a thick accretion disc or by relativistic beaming. Shadowing by a molecular torus is unlikely, given the absence of an infrared signal from the reradiated flux absorbed by any torus. Anisotropy would have important implications for the bolometric luminosity and nature of active galactic nuclei
  • Shulevski, A., et al. (författare)
  • The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06 : a case for recurrent AGN activity?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 579, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (~ 4″), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (~ 30″), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The outermost regions of radio emission have a steep spectral index (α< − 1), indicative of old plasma. We connect the spectral index properties of the resolved source structure with the integrated fluxdensity spectral index of 4C 35.06 and suggest an explanation for its unusual integrated flux density spectral shape (a moderately steep power law with no discernible spectral break), possibly providing a proxy for future studies of more distant radio sources through inferring their detailed spectral index properties and activity history from their integrated spectral indices. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it is intermittently active as it moves in the dense environment in the cluster core. In this scenario, the AGN turned on sometime in the past, and has produced the helical pattern of emission, possibly a sign of jet precession/merger during that episode of activity. Using LOFAR, we can trace the relic plasma from that episode of activity out to greater distances from the core than ever before. Using the the WSRT, we detect H I in absorption against the center of the radio source. The absorption profile is relatively broad (FWHM of 288 kms-1), similar to what is found in other clusters. The derived column density is NHI ~ 4 × 1020 cm-2 for a Tspin = 100 K. This detection supports the connection – already suggested for other restarted radio sources – between the presence of cold gas and restarting activity. The cold gas appears to be dominated by a blue-shifted component although the broad H I profile could also include gas with different kinematics. Understanding the duty cycle of the radio emission as well as the triggering mechanism for starting (or restarting) the radio-loud activity can provide important constraints to quantify the impact of AGN feedback on galaxy evolution. The study of these mechanisms at low frequencies using morphological and spectral information promises to bring new important insights in this field.
  • Jansen, Willemijn J, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology in persons without dementia: a meta-analysis.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: JAMA. - : American Medical Association. - 1538-3598 .- 0098-7484. ; 313:19, s. 1924-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies.
  • Sehlin, Dag, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Engineered antibodies : new possibilities for brain PET?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : SPRINGER. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 46:13, s. 2848-2858
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Almost 50 million people worldwide are affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Development of disease-modifying therapies would benefit from reliable, non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers for early diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and assessment of therapeutic effects. Traditionally, PET ligands have been based on small molecules that, with the right properties, can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and visualize targets in the brain. Recently a new class of PET ligands based on antibodies have emerged, mainly in applications related to cancer. While antibodies have advantages such as high specificity and affinity, their passage across the BBB is limited. Thus, to be used as brain PET ligands, antibodies need to be modified for active transport into the brain. Here, we review the development of radioligands based on antibodies for visualization of intrabrain targets. We focus on antibodies modified into a bispecific format, with the capacity to undergo transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1)-mediated transcytosis to enter the brain and access pathological proteins, e.g. amyloid-beta. A number of such antibody ligands have been developed, displaying differences in brain uptake, pharmacokinetics, and ability to bind and visualize the target in the brain of transgenic mice. Potential pathological changes related to neurodegeneration, e.g. misfolded proteins and neuroinflammation, are suggested as future targets for this novel type of radioligand. Challenges are also discussed, such as the temporal match of radionuclide half-life with the ligand's pharmacokinetic profile and translation to human use. In conclusion, brain PET imaging using bispecific antibodies, modified for receptor-mediated transcytosis across the BBB, is a promising method for specifically visualizing molecules in the brain that are difficult to target with traditional small molecule ligands.
  • Chételat, Gaël, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid-PET and 18F-FDG-PET in the diagnostic investigation of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 19:11, s. 951-962
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Various biomarkers are available to support the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases in clinical and research settings. Among the molecular imaging biomarkers, amyloid-PET, which assesses brain amyloid deposition, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET, which assesses glucose metabolism, provide valuable and complementary information. However, uncertainty remains regarding the optimal timepoint, combination, and an order in which these PET biomarkers should be used in diagnostic evaluations because conclusive evidence is missing. Following an expert panel discussion, we reached an agreement on the specific use of the individual biomarkers, based on available evidence and clinical expertise. We propose a diagnostic algorithm with optimal timepoints for these PET biomarkers, also taking into account evidence from other biomarkers, for early and differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases that can lead to dementia. We propose three main diagnostic pathways with distinct biomarker sequences, in which amyloid-PET and 18F-FDG-PET are placed at different positions in the order of diagnostic evaluations, depending on clinical presentation. We hope that this algorithm can support diagnostic decision making in specialist clinical settings with access to these biomarkers and might stimulate further research towards optimal diagnostic strategies.
  • Morganti, R., et al. (författare)
  • Continuum surveys with LOFAR and synergy with future large surveys in the 1 – 2 GHz band
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science. - 1824-8039. ; 89
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Radio astronomy is entering the era of large surveys. This paper describes the plans for wide surveys with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) and their synergy with large surveys at higher frequencies (in particular in the 1 – 2 GHz band) that will be possible using future facilities like Apertif or ASKAP. The LOFAR Survey Key Science Project aims at conducting large-sky surveys at 15, 30, 60, 120 and 200 MHz taking advantage of the wide instantaneous field of view and of the unprecedented sensitivity of this instrument.
  • Ostensen, R, et al. (författare)
  • ESO & NOT photometric monitoring of the Cloverleaf quasar
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS SUPPLEMENT SERIES. - : E D P SCIENCES. - 0365-0138. ; 126:3, s. 393-400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, has been photometrically monitored at ESO (La Silla, Chile) and with the NOT (La Palma, Spain) during the period 1987-1994. All good quality CCD frames have been successfully analysed using two independent methods (i.e. a
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