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1.
  • Achberger, Christine, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2011
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. - 0003-0007. ; 93:7, s. S1-S263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large-scale climate patterns influenced temperature and weather patterns around the globe in 2011. In particular, a moderate-to-strong La Nina at the beginning of the year dissipated during boreal spring but reemerged during fall. The phenomenon contributed to historical droughts in East Africa, the southern United States, and northern Mexico, as well the wettest two-year period (2010-11) on record for Australia, particularly remarkable as this follows a decade-long dry period. Precipitation patterns in South America were also influenced by La Nina. Heavy rain in Rio de Janeiro in January triggered the country's worst floods and landslides in Brazil's history. The 2011 combined average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was the coolest since 2008, but was also among the 15 warmest years on record and above the 1981-2010 average. The global sea surface temperature cooled by 0.1 degrees C from 2010 to 2011, associated with cooling influences of La Nina. Global integrals of upper ocean heat content for 2011 were higher than for all prior years, demonstrating the Earth's dominant role of the oceans in the Earth's energy budget. In the upper atmosphere, tropical stratospheric temperatures were anomalously warm, while polar temperatures were anomalously cold. This led to large springtime stratospheric ozone reductions in polar latitudes in both hemispheres. Ozone concentrations in the Arctic stratosphere during March were the lowest for that period since satellite records began in 1979. An extensive, deep, and persistent ozone hole over the Antarctic in September indicates that the recovery to pre-1980 conditions is proceeding very slowly. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased by 2.10 ppm in 2011, and exceeded 390 ppm for the first time since instrumental records began. Other greenhouse gases also continued to rise in concentration and the combined effect now represents a 30% increase in radiative forcing over a 1990 baseline. Most ozone depleting substances continued to fall. The global net ocean carbon dioxide uptake for the 2010 transition period from El Nino to La Nina, the most recent period for which analyzed data are available, was estimated to be 1.30 Pg C yr(-1), almost 12% below the 29-year long-term average. Relative to the long-term trend, global sea level dropped noticeably in mid-2010 and reached a local minimum in 2011. The drop has been linked to the La Nina conditions that prevailed throughout much of 2010-11. Global sea level increased sharply during the second half of 2011. Global tropical cyclone activity during 2011 was well-below average, with a total of 74 storms compared with the 1981-2010 average of 89. Similar to 2010, the North Atlantic was the only basin that experienced above-normal activity. For the first year since the widespread introduction of the Dvorak intensity-estimation method in the 1980s, only three tropical cyclones reached Category 5 intensity level-all in the Northwest Pacific basin. The Arctic continued to warm at about twice the rate compared with lower latitudes. Below-normal summer snowfall, a decreasing trend in surface albedo, and above-average surface and upper air temperatures resulted in a continued pattern of extreme surface melting, and net snow and ice loss on the Greenland ice sheet. Warmer-than-normal temperatures over the Eurasian Arctic in spring resulted in a new record-low June snow cover extent and spring snow cover duration in this region. In the Canadian Arctic, the mass loss from glaciers and ice caps was the greatest since GRACE measurements began in 2002, continuing a negative trend that began in 1987. New record high temperatures occurred at 20 m below the land surface at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, where measurements began in the late 1970s. Arctic sea ice extent in September 2011 was the second-lowest on record, while the extent of old ice (four and five years) reached a new record minimum that was just 19% of normal. On the opposite pole, austral winter and spring temperatures were more than 3 degrees C above normal over much of the Antarctic continent. However, winter temperatures were below normal in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, which continued the downward trend there during the last 15 years. In summer, an all-time record high temperature of -12.3 degrees C was set at the South Pole station on 25 December, exceeding the previous record by more than a full degree. Antarctic sea ice extent anomalies increased steadily through much of the year, from briefly setting a record low in April, to well above average in December. The latter trend reflects the dispersive effects of low pressure on sea ice and the generally cool conditions around the Antarctic perimeter.
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2.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Determination of the top-quark pole mass using t(t)over-bar+1-jet events collected with the ATLAS experiment in 7 TeV pp collisions
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The normalized differential cross section for top-quark pair production in association with at least one jet is studied as a function of the inverse of the invariant mass of the t (t) over bar + 1-jet system. This distribution can be used for a precise determination of the top-quark mass since gluon radiation depends on the mass of the quarks. The experimental analysis is based on proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). The selected events were identified using the lepton+jets top-quark-pair decay channel, where lepton refers to either an electron or a muon. The observed distribution is compared to a theoretical prediction at next-to-leading-order accuracy in quantum chromodynamics using the pole-mass scheme. With this method, the measured value of the top-quark pole mass, m(t)(pole), is: m(t)(pole) t = 173.7 +/- 1.5 (stat.) +/- 1.4 (syst.)(-0.5)(+1.0) (theory) GeV. This result represents the most precise measurement of the top-quark pole mass to date.
3.
  • Aad, G, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the top pair production cross section in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions using kinematic information in the lepton plus jets final state with ATLAS
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 91:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A measurement is presented of the (tt) over bar inclusive production cross section in pp collisions at a center-ofmass energy of pffisffiffi root s = 8 TeV using data collected by the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement was performed in the lepton + jets final state using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb(-1). The cross section was obtained using a likelihood discriminant fit and b-jet identification was used to improve the signal-to-background ratio. The inclusive (tt) over bar production cross section was measured to be 260 +/- 1(stat)(-23)(+22)(stat) +/- 8(lumi) +/- 4(beam) pb assuming a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV, in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of 253(-15)(+13) pb. The (tt) over bar -> (e, mu) + jets production cross section in the fiducial region determined by the detector acceptance is also reported.
4.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N., et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
5.
  • Hudson, Lawrence N, et al. (författare)
  • The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - John Wiley & Sons. - 2045-7758 .- 2045-7758. ; 7:1, s. 145-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
  •  
6.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A search for high-mass resonances decaying to tau(+)tau(-) in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for high-mass resonances decaying into tau(+)tau(-) final states using proton-proton collisions at root s = 8 TeV produced by the Large Hadron Collider is presented. The data were recorded with the ATLAS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.5-20.3 fb(-1). No statistically significant excess above the Standard Model expectation is observed; 95% credibility upper limits are set on the cross section times branching fraction of Z' resonances decaying into tau(+)tau(-) pairs as a function of the resonance mass. As a result, Z' bosons of the Sequential Standard Model with masses less than 2.02 TeV are excluded at 95% credibility. The impact of the fermionic couplings on the Z' acceptance is investigated and limits are also placed on a Z' model that exhibits enhanced couplings to third-generation fermions.
7.
  • Aad, G, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence of W gamma gamma Production in pp Collisions at root s=8 TeV and Limits on Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings with the ATLAS Detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 1079-7114. ; 115:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This Letter reports evidence of triple gauge boson production pp -> W(l nu)gamma gamma + X, which is accessible for the first time with the 8 TeV LHC data set. The fiducial cross section for this process is measured in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb(-1), collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012. Events are selected using the W boson decay to e nu or mu nu as well as requiring two isolated photons. The measured cross section is used to set limits on anomalous quartic gauge couplings in the high diphoton mass region.
8.
  • Aad, G, et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb plus Pb collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Charged-particle spectra obtained in Pb+Pb interactions at root s(NN) = 2.76TeV and pp interactions at root s(NN) = 2.76TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented, using data with integrated luminosities of 0.15 nb(-1) and 4.2 pb(-1), respectively, in a wide transverse momentum (0.5 < p(T) < 150 GeV) and pseudorapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 2) range. For Pb+Pb collisions, the spectra are presented as a function of collision centrality, which is determined by the response of the forward calorimeters located on both sides of the interaction point. The nuclear modification factors R-AA and R-CP are presented in detail as a function of centrality, p(T) and eta. They show a distinct p(T)-dependence with a pronounced minimum at about 7 GeV. Above 60 GeV, R-AA is consistent with a plateau at a centrality-dependent value, within the uncertainties. The value is 0.55 +/- 0.01(stat.) +/- 0.04(syst.) in the most central collisions. The R-AA distribution is consistent with flat vertical bar eta vertical bar dependence over the whole transverse momentum range in all centrality classes.
9.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for a CP-odd Higgs boson decaying to Zh in pp collisions at root s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 744, s. 163-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for a heavy, CP-odd Higgs boson, A, decaying into a Z boson and a 125 GeV Higgs boson, h, with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. The search uses proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb(-1). Decays of CP-even h bosons to tau tau or bb pairs with the Z boson decaying to electron or muon pairs are considered, as well as h -> bb decays with the Z boson decaying to neutrinos. No evidence for the production of an A boson in these channels is found and the 95% confidence level upper limits derived for sigma(gg -> A) x BR(A -> Zh) x BR(h -> f (f) over bar) are 0.098-0.013 pb for f = tau and 0.57-0.014 pb for f = b in a range of m(A) = 220-1000 GeV. The results are combined and interpreted in the context of two-Higgs-doublet models. Published by Elsevier B.V.
10.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for direct pair production of a chargino and a neutralino decaying to the 125 GeV Higgs boson in [Formula: see text] TeV [Formula: see text] collisions with the ATLAS detector.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 75:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search is presented for the direct pair production of a chargino and a neutralino [Formula: see text], where the chargino decays to the lightest neutralino and the [Formula: see text] boson, [Formula: see text], while the neutralino decays to the lightest neutralino and the 125 GeV Higgs boson, [Formula: see text]. The final states considered for the search have large missing transverse momentum, an isolated electron or muon, and one of the following: either two jets identified as originating from bottom quarks, or two photons, or a second electron or muon with the same electric charge. The analysis is based on 20.3 [Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] proton-proton collision data delivered by the Large Hadron Collider and recorded with the ATLAS detector. Observations are consistent with the Standard Model expectations, and limits are set in the context of a simplified supersymmetric model.
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