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  • Achberger, Christine, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2011
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. - 0003-0007. ; 93:7, s. S1-S263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large-scale climate patterns influenced temperature and weather patterns around the globe in 2011. In particular, a moderate-to-strong La Nina at the beginning of the year dissipated during boreal spring but reemerged during fall. The phenomenon contributed to historical droughts in East Africa, the southern United States, and northern Mexico, as well the wettest two-year period (2010-11) on record for Australia, particularly remarkable as this follows a decade-long dry period. Precipitation patterns in South America were also influenced by La Nina. Heavy rain in Rio de Janeiro in January triggered the country's worst floods and landslides in Brazil's history. The 2011 combined average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was the coolest since 2008, but was also among the 15 warmest years on record and above the 1981-2010 average. The global sea surface temperature cooled by 0.1 degrees C from 2010 to 2011, associated with cooling influences of La Nina. Global integrals of upper ocean heat content for 2011 were higher than for all prior years, demonstrating the Earth's dominant role of the oceans in the Earth's energy budget. In the upper atmosphere, tropical stratospheric temperatures were anomalously warm, while polar temperatures were anomalously cold. This led to large springtime stratospheric ozone reductions in polar latitudes in both hemispheres. Ozone concentrations in the Arctic stratosphere during March were the lowest for that period since satellite records began in 1979. An extensive, deep, and persistent ozone hole over the Antarctic in September indicates that the recovery to pre-1980 conditions is proceeding very slowly. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased by 2.10 ppm in 2011, and exceeded 390 ppm for the first time since instrumental records began. Other greenhouse gases also continued to rise in concentration and the combined effect now represents a 30% increase in radiative forcing over a 1990 baseline. Most ozone depleting substances continued to fall. The global net ocean carbon dioxide uptake for the 2010 transition period from El Nino to La Nina, the most recent period for which analyzed data are available, was estimated to be 1.30 Pg C yr(-1), almost 12% below the 29-year long-term average. Relative to the long-term trend, global sea level dropped noticeably in mid-2010 and reached a local minimum in 2011. The drop has been linked to the La Nina conditions that prevailed throughout much of 2010-11. Global sea level increased sharply during the second half of 2011. Global tropical cyclone activity during 2011 was well-below average, with a total of 74 storms compared with the 1981-2010 average of 89. Similar to 2010, the North Atlantic was the only basin that experienced above-normal activity. For the first year since the widespread introduction of the Dvorak intensity-estimation method in the 1980s, only three tropical cyclones reached Category 5 intensity level-all in the Northwest Pacific basin. The Arctic continued to warm at about twice the rate compared with lower latitudes. Below-normal summer snowfall, a decreasing trend in surface albedo, and above-average surface and upper air temperatures resulted in a continued pattern of extreme surface melting, and net snow and ice loss on the Greenland ice sheet. Warmer-than-normal temperatures over the Eurasian Arctic in spring resulted in a new record-low June snow cover extent and spring snow cover duration in this region. In the Canadian Arctic, the mass loss from glaciers and ice caps was the greatest since GRACE measurements began in 2002, continuing a negative trend that began in 1987. New record high temperatures occurred at 20 m below the land surface at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, where measurements began in the late 1970s. Arctic sea ice extent in September 2011 was the second-lowest on record, while the extent of old ice (four and five years) reached a new record minimum that was just 19% of normal. On the opposite pole, austral winter and spring temperatures were more than 3 degrees C above normal over much of the Antarctic continent. However, winter temperatures were below normal in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, which continued the downward trend there during the last 15 years. In summer, an all-time record high temperature of -12.3 degrees C was set at the South Pole station on 25 December, exceeding the previous record by more than a full degree. Antarctic sea ice extent anomalies increased steadily through much of the year, from briefly setting a record low in April, to well above average in December. The latter trend reflects the dispersive effects of low pressure on sea ice and the generally cool conditions around the Antarctic perimeter.
  • Abate, E., et al. (författare)
  • Combined performance tests before installation of the ATLAS Semiconductor and Transition Radiation Tracking Detectors
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) Inner Detector provides charged particle tracking in the centre of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Inner Detector consists of three subdetectors: the Pixel Detector, the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT), and the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). This paper summarizes the tests that were carried out at the final stage of SCT+TRT integration prior to their installation in ATLAS. The combined operation and performance of the SCT and TRT barrel and endcap detectors was investigated through a series of noise tests, and by recording the tracks of cosmic rays. This was a crucial test of hardware and software of the combined tracker detector systems. The results of noise and cross-talk tests on the SCT and TRT in their final assembled configuration, using final readout and supply hardware and software, are reported. The reconstruction and analysis of the recorded cosmic tracks allowed testing of the offline analysis chain and verification of basic tracker performance parameters, such as efficiency and spatial resolution, in combined operation before installation.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the differential cross-section of B+ meson production in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV at ATLAS
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The production cross-section of B+ mesons is measured as a function of transverse momentum p T and rapidity y in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energy root s = 7 TeV, using 2.4 fb(-1) of data recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The differential production cross-sections, determined in the range 9 GeV < p(T) < 120 GeV and vertical bar y vertical bar < 2.25, are compared to next-to-leading-order theoretical predictions.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • A search for high-mass resonances decaying to tau(+)tau(-) in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 719:4-5, s. 242-260
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This Letter presents a search for high-mass resonances decaying into tau(+)tau(-) final states using proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV produced by the Large Hadron Collider. The data were recorded with the ATLAS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). No statistically significant excess above the Standard Model expectation is observed; 95% credibility upper limits are set on the cross section times branching fraction of Z' resonances decaying into tau(+)tau(-) pairs as a function of the resonance mass. As a result, Z' bosons of the Sequential Standard Model with masses less than 1.40 TeV are excluded at 95% credibility. (c) 2013 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Characterisation and mitigation of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector during the 2011 proton-proton run
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - IOP Publishing. - 1748-0221. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a summary of beam-induced backgrounds observed in the ATLAS detector and discusses methods to tag and remove background contaminated events in data. Trigger-rate based monitoring of beam-related backgrounds is presented. The correlations of backgrounds with machine conditions, such as residual pressure in the beam-pipe, are discussed. Results from dedicated beam-background simulations are shown, and their qualitative agreement with data is evaluated. Data taken during the passage of unpaired, i.e. non-colliding, proton bunches is used to obtain background-enriched data samples. These are used to identify characteristic features of beam-induced backgrounds, which then are exploited to develop dedicated background tagging tools. These tools, based on observables in the Pixel detector, the muon spectrometer and the calorimeters, are described in detail and their efficiencies are evaluated. Finally an example of an application of these techniques to a monojet analysis is given, which demonstrates the importance of such event cleaning techniques for some new physics searches.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Combined search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D (Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology). - American Physical Society. - 1550-2368. ; 86:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A combined search for the Standard Model Higgs boson with the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. The data sets used correspond to integrated luminosities from 4.6 fb(-1) to 4.9 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions collected at root s = 7 TeV in 2011. The Higgs boson mass ranges of 111.4 GeV to 116.6 GeV, 119.4 GeV to 122.1 GeV, and 129.2 GeV to 541 GeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level, while the range 120 GeV to 560 GeV is expected to be excluded in the absence of a signal. An excess of events is observed at Higgs boson mass hypotheses around 126 GeV with a local significance of 2.9 standard deviations (sigma). The global probability for the background to produce an excess at least as significant anywhere in the entire explored Higgs boson mass range of 110-600 GeV is estimated to be similar to 15%, corresponding to a significance of approximately 1 sigma.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of hard double-parton interactions in W(-&gt; lv) plus 2-jet events at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: New Journal of Physics. - IOP Publishing. - 1367-2630. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The production of W bosons in association with two jets in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 7 TeV has been analysed for the presence of double-parton interactions using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb(-1), collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The fraction of events arising from double-parton interactions, f(DP)((D)), has been measured through the p(T) balance between the two jets and amounts to f(DP)((D)) = 0.08 +/- 0.01 (stat.) +/- 0.02 (sys.) for jets with transverse momentum p(T) > 20 GeV and rapidity vertical bar y vertical bar < 2.8. This corresponds to a measurement of the effective area parameter for hard double-parton interactions of sigma(eff) = 15 +/- 3 (stat.)(-3)(+5) (sys.) mb.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of isolated-photon pair production in pp collisions at root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the production cross section of events with two isolated photons in the final state, in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV. The full data set collected in 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb(-1), is used. The amount of background, from hadronic jets and isolated electrons, is estimated with data-driven techniques and subtracted. The total cross section, for two isolated photons with transverse energies above 25 GeV and 22 GeV respectively, in the acceptance of the electromagnetic calorimeter (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1.37 and 1.52 < vertical bar eta vertical bar 2.37) and with an angular separation Delta R > 0.4, is 44.0(-4.2)(+3.2) pb. The differential cross sections as a function of the di-photon invariant mass, transverse momentum, azimuthal separation, and cosine of the polar angle of the largest transverse energy photon in the Collins-Soper di-photon rest frame are also measured. The results are compared to the prediction of leading-order parton-shower and next-to-leading-order and next-to-next-to-leading-order parton-level generators.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the inclusive jet cross-section in pp collisions at root s=2.76 TeV and comparison to the inclusive jet cross-section at root s=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 73:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The inclusive jet cross-section has been measured in proton-proton collisions at root s = 2.76 TeV in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.20 pb(-1) collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2011. Jets are identified using the anti-k(t) algorithm with two radius parameters of 0.4 and 0.6. The inclusive jet double-differential cross-section is presented as a function of the jet transverse momentum p(T) and jet rapidity y, covering a range of 20 <= p(T) < 430 GeV and vertical bar y vertical bar < 4.4. The ratio of the cross-section to the inclusive jet cross-section measurement at root s = 7 TeV, published by the ATLAS Collaboration, is calculated as a function of both transverse momentum and the dimensionless quantity x(T) = 2p(T)/root s, in bins of jet rapidity. The systematic uncertainties on the ratios are significantly reduced due to the cancellation of correlated uncertainties in the two measurements. Results are compared to the prediction from next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects, and next-to-leading order Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the ATLAS jet cross-section measurements at root s = 2.76 TeV and root s = 7 TeV are analysed within a framework of next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations to determine parton distribution functions of the proton, taking into account the correlations between the measurements.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the production cross section of prompt j/psi mesons in association with a W (+/-) boson in pp collisions root s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The process pp -> W (+/-) J/psi provides a powerful probe of the production mechanism of charmonium in hadronic collisions, and is also sensitive to multiple parton interactions in the colliding protons. Using the 2011 ATLAS dataset of 4.5 fb(-1) of root s= 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC, the first observation is made of the production of W (+/-) + prompt J/psi events in hadronic collisions, using W (+/-) -> mu nu(mu) and J/psi -> mu(+)mu(-) center dot A yield of W (+/-) + prompt J/psi events is observed, with a statistical significance of 5.1 sigma. The production rate as a ratio to the inclusive W (+/-) boson production rate is measured, and the double parton scattering contribution to the cross section is estimated.
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