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Sökning: WFRF:(Becker Emily)

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1.
  • Lakens, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Justify your alpha
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Human Behaviour. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2397-3374. ; 2:3, s. 168-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to P ≤ 0.005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level.
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2.
  • Arndt, D. S., et al. (författare)
  • STATE OF THE CLIMATE IN 2017
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS). - : AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC. - 0003-0007 .- 1520-0477. ; 99:8, s. S1-S310
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
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3.
  • Karikari, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • An extensive plasmid library to prepare tau protein variants and study their functional biochemistry.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ACS chemical neuroscience. - 1948-7193. ; 11:19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tau neurofibrillary tangles are key pathological features of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. Recombinant protein technology is vital for studying the structure and function of tau in physiology and aggregation in pathophysiology. However, open-source and well-characterized plasmids for efficiently expressing and purifying different tau variants are lacking. We generated 44 sequence-verified plasmids including those encoding full length (FL) tau-441, its four-repeat microtubule-binding (K18) fragment, and their respective selected familial pathological variants (N279K, V337M, P301L, C291R and S356T). Moreover, plasmids for expressing single (C291A), double (C291A/C322A) and triple (C291A/C322A/I260C) cysteine-modified variants were generated to study alterations in cysteine content and locations. Furthermore, protocols for producing representative tau forms were developed. We produced and characterized the aggregation behavior of the triple cysteine-modified tau-K18, often used in real-time cell internalization and aggregation studies because it can be fluorescently labeled on a cysteine outside the microtubule-binding core. Similar to the wild type (WT), triple cysteine-modified tau-K18 aggregated by progressive -sheet enrichment, albeit at a slower rate. On prolonged incubation, cysteine-modified K18 formed paired helical filaments similar to those in Alzheimer's disease, sharing morphological phenotypes with WT tau-K18 filaments. Nonetheless, cysteine-modified tau-K18 filaments were significantly shorter (p=0.002) and mostly wider than WT filaments, explainable by their different principal filament elongation pathways: vertical (end-to-end) and lateral growth for WT and cysteine-modified respectively. Cysteine rearrangement may therefore induce filament polymorphism. Together, the plasmid library, the protein production methods, and the new insights into cysteine-dependent aggregation, should facilitate further studies and the design of anti-aggregation agents.
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4.
  • Krans, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • "I see what you're saying" : Intrusive images from listening to a traumatic verbal report
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Anxiety Disorders. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0887-6185 .- 1873-7897. ; 24:1, s. 134-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We tested the hypothesis that intrusive visual images could develop from listening to a traumatic verbal report. Eighty-six participants listened to a traumatic verbal report under one of three conditions: while shaping plasticine (visuospatial condition), while performing articulatory suppression (verbal condition), or with no extra task (control condition). Results showed that intrusive visual images developed from listening to the traumatic report. In line with the idea that central executive processes guide encoding of information, intrusion frequency was reduced in both the visuospatial and the verbal condition compared to the no task control condition. Overall. this pattern is similar to intrusive images from a traumatic film as found in earlier studies. This study provides a valuable addition to models of posttraumatic stress disorder and autobiographical memory. Additionally, the results have potential implications for therapists working with traumatized individuals. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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5.
  • Krans, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • Intrusive Trauma Memory : A Review and Functional Analysis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Applied Cognitive Psychology. - : WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 0888-4080 .- 1099-0720. ; 23:8, s. 1076-1088
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our contribution to this special issue focuses on the phenomenon of intrusive trauma memory. While intrusive trauma memories can undoubtedly cause impairment. we argue that they may exist for a potentially adaptive reason. Theory and experimental research on intrusion development are reviewed and possible functions of intrusive trauma memory are explored. These functions include aiding emotional processing, preventing future harm and protecting the coherence of the self. The issue of intrusive images in other disorders than posttraumatic stress disorder is briefly addressed. This review suggests that the study of function is important for a nuanced view on the modulation of intrusive trauma memory in both experimental psychopathology and clinical treatment. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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6.
  • Krans, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • Motion Effects on Intrusion Development
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. - : ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 1529-9732 .- 1529-9740. ; 11:1, s. 73-82
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analogue studies on intrusion development have found that visuospatial tasks performed during the encoding of aversive information reduce subsequent intrusion development. However, these studies cannot rule out a physical explanation in terms of simple movement. In the current study we addressed this issue. Healthy participants viewed an aversive film while performing a visuospatial movement task, a configurational movement task, or no task. Intrusive images from the film were reported in a diary during the week following film viewing. In line with an information-processing account of posttraumatic stress disorder, intrusion frequency was significantly reduced by the visuospatial movement task but not the configurational movement task compared to no task. This finding supports the role of visuospatial processing specifically in intrusion development.
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7.
  • Krans, Julie, et al. (författare)
  • Tell me more : Can a memory test reduce analogue traumatic intrusions?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 0005-7967 .- 1873-622X. ; 47:5, s. 426-430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Information processing theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) state that intrusive images emerge due to a lack of integration of perceptual trauma representations in autobiographical memory. To test this hypothesis experimentally, participants were shown an aversive film to elicit intrusive images. After viewing, they received a recognition test for just one part of the film. The test contained neutrally formulated items to rehearse information from the film. Participants reported intrusive images for the film in an intrusion diary during one week after viewing. In line with expectations, the number of intrusive images decreased only for the part of the film for which the recognition test was given. Furthermore, deliberate cued-recall memory after one week was selectively enhanced for the film part that was in the recognition test a week before. The findings provide new evidence supporting information processing models of PTSD and have potential implications for early interventions after trauma. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Lundgren, Markus, et al. (författare)
  • Analgesic antipyretic use among young children in the TEDDY study : No association with islet autoimmunity
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2431. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The use of analgesic antipyretics (ANAP) in children have long been a matter of controversy. Data on their practical use on an individual level has, however, been scarce. There are indications of possible effects on glucose homeostasis and immune function related to the use of ANAP. The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of analgesic antipyretic use across the clinical centers of The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) prospective cohort study and test if ANAP use was a risk factor for islet autoimmunity. Methods: Data were collected for 8542 children in the first 2.5 years of life. Incidence was analyzed using logistic regression with country and first child status as independent variables. Holm's procedure was used to adjust for multiplicity of intercountry comparisons. Time to autoantibody seroconversion was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model with cumulative analgesic use as primary time dependent covariate of interest. For each categorization, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used. Results: Higher prevalence of ANAP use was found in the U.S. (95.7%) and Sweden (94.8%) compared to Finland (78.1%) and Germany (80.2%). First-born children were more commonly given acetaminophen (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07, 1.49; p = 0.007) but less commonly Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAID) (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.78, 0.95; p = 0.002). Acetaminophen and NSAID use in the absence of fever and infection was more prevalent in the U.S. (40.4%; 26.3% of doses) compared to Sweden, Finland and Germany (p < 0.001). Acetaminophen or NSAID use before age 2.5 years did not predict development of islet autoimmunity by age 6 years (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.99-1.09; p = 0.27). In a sub-analysis, acetaminophen use in children with fever weakly predicted development of islet autoimmunity by age 3 years (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; p = 0.024). Conclusions: ANAP use in young children is not a risk factor for seroconversion by age 6 years. Use of ANAP is widespread in young children, and significantly higher in the U.S. compared to other study sites, where use is common also in absence of fever and infection.
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9.
  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
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10.
  • White, Christopher J., et al. (författare)
  • Potential applications of subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) predictions
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Meteorological Applications. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1350-4827 .- 1469-8080. ; 24:3, s. 315-325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While seasonal outlooks have been operational for many years, until recently the extended-range timescale referred to as subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) has received little attention. S2S prediction fills the gap between short-range weather prediction and long-range seasonal outlooks. Decisions in a range of sectors are made in this extended-range lead time; therefore, there is a strong demand for this new generation of forecasts. International efforts are under way to identify key sources of predictability, improve forecast skill and operationalize aspects of S2S forecasts; however, challenges remain in advancing this new frontier. If S2S predictions are to be used effectively, it is important that, along with science advances, an effort is made to develop, communicate and apply these forecasts appropriately. In this study, the emerging operational S2S forecasts are presented to the wider weather and climate applications community by undertaking the first comprehensive review of sectoral applications of S2S predictions, including public health, disaster preparedness, water management, energy and agriculture. The value of applications-relevant S2S predictions is explored, and the opportunities and challenges facing their uptake are highlighted. It is shown how social sciences can be integrated with S2S development, from communication to decision-making and valuation of forecasts, to enhance the benefits of ‘climate services’ approaches for extended-range forecasting. While S2S forecasting is at a relatively early stage of development, it is concluded that it presents a significant new window of opportunity that can be explored for application-ready capabilities that could allow many sectors the opportunity to systematically plan on a new time horizon.
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