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  • Cerezo-Magana, M., et al. (författare)
  • The pleiotropic role of proteoglycans in extracellular vesicle mediated communication in the tumor microenvironment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Seminars in Cancer Biology. - : ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 1044-579X .- 1096-3650. ; 62, s. 99-107
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Compartmental exchange between cells through extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, has emerged as a central mechanism that coordinates the complex communication between malignant and stromal cells during tumor initiation and evolution. Some of the most critical processes of EV-mediated communication, including EV biogenesis and EV uptake, can be mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) that reside on the surface of producer and recipient cells as well as on EVs. With interestingly similar, HSPG-dependent, pathways as the ones exploited by some viruses, EVs may, in an evolutionary perspective, be viewed as endogenous counterparts of viral particles. Cancer cell-derived EVs exert their protumorigenic effects by direct interactions of biologically active surface molecules, by transfer of proteins and nucleic acids into recipient cells or by transfer of metabolites that can be utilized as an energy source by the recipient cell. Here, we discuss the pleiotropic role of the HSPG family in these different contexts of EV communication with a specific focus on tumor development. We propose EV-associated PGs as dynamic reservoirs and chaperones of signaling molecules with potential implications in ligand exchange between EVs and tumor target cells. The protumorigenic consequences of EV mediated communication through HSPG should motivate the development of therapeutic approaches targeting EV-HSPG interactions as a novel strategy in cancer treatment.
  • Evans, Colin E, et al. (författare)
  • Diverse roles of cell-specific hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in cancer-associated hypercoagulation.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020. ; 127:10, s. 1355-1360
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite the increased risk of thrombosis in cancer patients compared with healthy individuals, mechanisms that regulate cancer-induced hypercoagulation are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell-specific hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α regulates cancer-associated hypercoagulation, using in vitro clotting assays and in vivo cancer models. In mouse lung and mammary tumor cells, hypoxia led to increases in cell adhesion, clotting, and fibrin deposition; these increases were eliminated in HIF1α null cells. Increased levels of HIF1α were also associated with increased tissue factor expression in human breast tumor samples. Conversely, deletion of endothelial (but not myeloid) cell-specific HIF1α doubled pulmonary fibrin deposition, and trebled thrombus formation compared with wildtype littermates in tumor-bearing mice. Our data suggest that tumor and endothelial cell-specific HIF1α may have opposing roles in cancer-associated coagulation and thrombosis. Off-target effects of manipulating the HIF1 axis in cancer patients should be carefully considered when managing thrombotic complications.
  • Evans, Colin E, et al. (författare)
  • Modelling pulmonary microthrombosis coupled to metastasis : Distinct effects of thrombogenesis on tumorigenesis
  • Ingår i: Biology Open. - : The Company of Biologists Ltd. - 2046-6390. ; 6:5, s. 688-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thrombosis can cause localized ischemia and tissue hypoxia, and both of these are linked to cancer metastasis. Vascular microocclusion can occur as a result of arrest of circulating tumour cells in small capillaries, giving rise to microthrombotic events that affect flow, creating localized hypoxic regions. To better understand the association between metastasis and thrombotic events, we generated an experimental strategy whereby we modelled the effect of microvascular occlusion in metastatic efficiency by using inert microbeads to obstruct lung microvasculature before, during and after intravenous tumour cell injection.We found that controlled induction of a specific number of these microthrombotic insults in the lungs caused an increase in expression of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), a pro-Angiogenic and pro-Tumorigenic environment, as well as an increase in myeloid cell infiltration. Induction of pulmonary microthrombosis prior to introduction of tumour cells to the lungs had no effect on tumorigenic success, but thrombosis at the time of tumour cell seeding increased number and size of tumours in the lung, and this effect was strikingly more pronounced when the microocclusion occurred on the day following introduction of tumour cells. The tumorigenic effect of microbead treatment was seen even when thrombosis was induced five days after tumour cell injection. We also found positive correlations between thrombotic factors and expression of HIF2α in human tumours. The model system described here demonstrates the importance of thrombotic insult in metastatic success and can be used to improve understanding of thrombosis-Associated tumorigenesis and its treatment.
  • Gezelius, E., et al. (författare)
  • Low-molecular-weight heparin adherence and effects on survival within a randomised phase III lung cancer trial (RASTEN)
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : Elsevier. - 0959-8049 .- 1879-0852. ; 118, s. 82-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Coagulation activation is a hallmark of cancer, and anticoagulants have shown tumour-inhibiting properties. However, recent trials have failed to demonstrate improved survival with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in cancer populations. This has raised the question of suboptimal adherence as a possible explanation for the lack of benefit. Still, there is no standardised method to directly monitor LMWH in patient plasma. Here, we directly determine LMWH levels in patients using the Heparin Red assay to objectively assess adherence and how this associates with the patient outcome in the RASTEN trial. Methods: RASTEN is a multicentre, randomised phase III trial investigating if the addition of LMWH to standard therapy can improve survival in small-cell lung cancer. LMWH was measured in plasma (N = 258) by the Heparin Red assay and compared with the anti–factor Xa (anti-FXa) activity assay. Results: Both methods could differentiate patients in the LMWH arm from the control arm and patients receiving therapeutic LMWH owing to thrombosis. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis yielded adherence rates of 85% for anti-FXa and 68% for Heparin Red. No survival benefits were found in the adherent subgroup compared with the control arm (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95–1.67; P = 0.105 and HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 0.89–1.60; P = 0.248 for anti-FXa and Heparin Red, respectively). Heparin Red could define patients with high probability of adherence to LMWH treatment, which warrants prospective studies for further validation. Our finding that the LMWH-adherent subpopulation did not show improved survival excludes that the negative outcome of RASTEN was due to poor adherence.
  • Indira Chandran, Vineesh, et al. (författare)
  • Ultrasensitive Immunoprofiling of Plasma Extracellular Vesicles Identifies Syndecan-1 as a Potential Tool for Minimally Invasive Diagnosis of Glioma
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 25:10, s. 3115-3127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Liquid biopsy has great potential to improve the management of brain tumor patients at high risk of surgery-associated complications. Here, the aim was to explore plasma extracellular vesicle (plEV) immunoprofiling as a tool for noninvasive diagnosis of glioma.Experimental Design: PlEV isolation and analysis were optimized using advanced mass spectrometry, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and electron microscopy. We then established a new procedure that combines size exclusion chromatography isolation and proximity extension assay-based ultrasensitive immunoprofiling of plEV proteins that was applied on a well-defined glioma study cohort (n = 82).Results: Among potential candidates, we for the first time identify syndecan-1 (SDC1) as a plEV constituent that can discriminate between high-grade glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV) and low-grade glioma [LGG, WHO grade II; area under the ROC curve (AUC): 0.81; sensitivity: 71%; specificity: 91%]. These findings were independently validated by ELISA. Tumor SDC1 mRNA expression similarly discriminated between GBM and LGG in an independent glioma patient population from The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (AUC: 0.91; sensitivity: 79%; specificity: 91%). In experimental studies with GBM cells, we show that SDC1 is efficiently sorted to secreted EVs. Importantly, we found strong support of plEVSDC1 originating from GBM tumors, as plEVSDC1 correlated with SDC1 protein expression in matched patient tumors, and plEVSDC1 was decreased postoperatively depending on the extent of surgery.Conclusions: Our studies support the concept of circulating plEVs as a tool for noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of gliomas and should move this field closer to the goal of improving the management of cancer patients.
  • Kucharzewska, Paulina, et al. (författare)
  • Exosomes reflect the hypoxic status of glioma cells and mediate hypoxia-dependent activation of vascular cells during tumor development.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - : National Acad Sciences. - 1091-6490. ; 110:18, s. 7312-7317
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypoxia, or low oxygen tension, is a major regulator of tumor development and aggressiveness. However, how cancer cells adapt to hypoxia and communicate with their surrounding microenvironment during tumor development remain important questions. Here, we show that secreted vesicles with exosome characteristics mediate hypoxia-dependent intercellular signaling of the highly malignant brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In vitro hypoxia experiments with glioma cells and studies with patient materials reveal the enrichment in exosomes of hypoxia-regulated mRNAs and proteins (e.g., matrix metalloproteinases, IL-8, PDGFs, caveolin 1, and lysyl oxidase), several of which were associated with poor glioma patient prognosis. We show that exosomes derived from GBM cells grown at hypoxic compared with normoxic conditions are potent inducers of angiogenesis ex vivo and in vitro through phenotypic modulation of endothelial cells. Interestingly, endothelial cells were programmed by GBM cell-derived hypoxic exosomes to secrete several potent growth factors and cytokines and to stimulate pericyte PI3K/AKT signaling activation and migration. Moreover, exosomes derived from hypoxic compared with normoxic conditions showed increased autocrine, promigratory activation of GBM cells. These findings were correlated with significantly enhanced induction by hypoxic compared with normoxic exosomes of tumor vascularization, pericyte vessel coverage, GBM cell proliferation, as well as decreased tumor hypoxia in a mouse xenograft model. We conclude that the proteome and mRNA profiles of exosome vesicles closely reflect the oxygenation status of donor glioma cells and patient tumors, and that the exosomal pathway constitutes a potentially targetable driver of hypoxia-dependent intercellular signaling during tumor development.
  • Larsson, Anna H, et al. (författare)
  • Overexpression of podocalyxin-like protein is an independent factor of poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827 .- 0007-0920. ; 105:5, s. 666-672
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Podocalyxin-like 1 (PODXL) is a cell-adhesion glycoprotein and stem cell marker that has been associated with an aggressive tumour phenotype and poor prognosis in several forms of cancer. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of PODXL expression in colorectal cancer (CRC).Methods:Using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry, PODXL expression was evaluated in 536 incident CRC cases from a prospective, population-based cohort study. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to assess the impact of PODXL expression on cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS).Results:High PODXL expression was significantly associated with unfavourable clinicopathological characteristics, a shorter CSS (hazard ratio (HR)=1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-2.84, P<0.001) and 5-year OS (HR=1.85; 95% CI 1.29-2.64, P=0.001); the latter remaining significant in multivariate analysis (HR=1.52; 95% CI 1.03-2.25, P=0.036). In addition, in curatively resected stage III (T1-4, N1-2, M0) patients (n=122) with tumours with high PODXL expression, a significant benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy was demonstrated (p(interaction) =0.004 for CSS and 0.015 for 5-year OS in multivariate analysis).Conclusion:Podocalyxin-like 1 expression is an independent factor of poor prognosis in CRC. Our results also suggest that PODXL may be a useful marker to stratify patients for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Zhang, X. A., et al. (författare)
  • Dual functions of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37-Target membrane perturbation and host cell cargo delivery
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes. - : Elsevier. - 0005-2736 .- 1879-2642. ; 1798:12, s. 2201-2208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mechanisms behind target vs. host cell recognition of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 remain ill-defined. Here, we have investigated the membrane disruption capacity of LL-37 using large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of varying mixtures of POPC, POPG and cholesterol to mimic target and host membranes respectively. We show that LL-37 is unable to induce leakage of entrapped calcein from zwitterionic POPC LUVs, whereas leakage from LUVs partially composed of POPG is fast and efficient. In accordance with typical antimicrobial peptide behavior, cholesterol diminished LL-37 induced leakage. By using linear dichroism and flow oriented LUVs, we found that LL-37 orients with the axis of its induced alpha-helix parallel to the membrane surface in POPC:POPG (7:3) LUVs. In the same system, we also observed a time-dependent increase of the parallel alpha-helix LD signal on timescales corresponding to the leakage kinetics. The increased LD may be connected to a peptide translocation step, giving rise to mass balance across the membrane. This could end the leakage process before it is complete, similar to what we have observed. Confocal microscopy studies of eukaryotic cells show that LL-37 is able to mediate the cell delivery of non-covalently linked fluorescent oligonucleotides, in agreement with earlier studies on delivery of plasmid DNA (Sandgren et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 17951). These observations highlight the potential dual functions of LL-37 as an antimicrobial agent against bacterial target cells and a cell-penetrating peptide that can deliver nucleic acids into the host cells.
  • Ahamed, Jasimuddin, et al. (författare)
  • Regulation of tissue factor-induced signaling by endogenous and recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020. ; 105:6, s. 2384-2391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tissue factor (TF) triggers upstream coagulation signaling via the activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs) of relevance for inflammation and angiogenesis. TF pathway inhibitor 1 (TFPI-1) is the physiologic inhibitor of TF-initiated coagulation, but its role in regulating TF signaling is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous, endothelial cell-expressed TFPI-1 controls TF-mediated signaling through PARs. In endothelial cells transduced with TF to mimic exacerbated TF expression in vascular cells, TF-VIIa-Xa ternary complex-dependent activation of PAR1 remained intact when TF-mediated Xa generation was blocked with 2.5 to 5 nM recombinant TFPI-1 (rTFPI-1). Concordantly, inhibition of signaling in PAR1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells required about 30-fold higher rTFPI-1 concentrations than necessary for anticoagulation. Studies with proteoglycan-deficient CHO cells document a crucial role of accessory receptors in supporting the anticoagulant and antisignaling activities of rTFPI-1. Coexpression of PAR2 with TF enhanced rTFPI-mediated inhibition of TF-VIIa-Xa-mediated PAR1 signaling, suggesting an unexpected role of PAR2 in the inhibitory control of TF signaling. These experiments are of potential significance for the limited therapeutic benefit of rTFPI-1 in systemic inflammation and recommend caution in using anticoagulant potency as a measure to predict how efficacious TF-directed inhibitors block cell signaling during initiation of coagulation.
  • Belting, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Developments in macromolecular drug delivery.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Methods in Molecular Biology. - : Springer. - 1940-6029. ; 480, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Macromolecular drugs hold great promise as novel therapeutics of several major disorders, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, their use is limited by lack of efficient, safe, and specific delivery strategies. Successful development of such strategies requires interdisciplinary collaborations involving researchers with expertise on, e.g., polymer chemistry, cell biology, nanotechnology, systems biology, advanced imaging methods, and clinical medicine. This not only poses obvious challenges to the scientific community but also provides opportunities for the unexpected at the interface between different disciplines. This introductory chapter summarizes and gives references to studies on macromolecular delivery that should be of interest to a broad scientific audience involved in macromolecular drug synthesis as well as in vitro and in vivo drug delivery studies.
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