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Sökning: WFRF:(Benstead Jonathan P.)

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1.
  • O'Gorman, Eoin J., et al. (författare)
  • Impacts of Warming on the Structure and Functioning of Aquatic Communities : Individual-to Ecosystem-Level Responses
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Advances in Ecological Research, Vol 47. - : Elsevier. - 9780123983152 ; , s. 81-176
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Environmental warming is predicted to rise dramatically over the next century, yet few studies have investigated its effects in natural, multi-species systems. We present data collated over an 8-year period from a catchment of geothermally heated streams in Iceland, which acts as a natural experiment on the effects of warming across different organisational levels and spatiotemporal scales. Body sizes and population biomasses of individual species responded strongly to temperature, with some providing evidence to support temperature size rules. Macroinvertebrate and meiofaunal community composition also changed dramatically across the thermal gradient. Interactions within the warm streams in particular were characterised by food chains linking algae to snails to the apex predator, brown trout These chains were missing from the colder systems, where snails were replaced by much smaller herbivores and invertebrate omnivores were the top predators. Trout were also subsidised by terrestrial invertebrate prey, which could have an effect analogous to apparent competition within the aquatic prey assemblage. Top-down effects by snails on diatoms were stronger in the warmer streams, which could account for a shallowing of mass-abundance slopes across the community. This may indicate reduced energy transfer efficiency from resources to consumers in the warmer systems and/or a change in predator-prey mass ratios. All the ecosystem process rates investigated increased with temperature, but with differing thermal sensitivities, with important implications for overall ecosystem functioning (e.g. creating potential imbalances in elemental fluxes). Ecosystem respiration rose rapidly with temperature, leading to increased heterotrophy. There were also indications that food web stability may be lower in the warmer streams.
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2.
  • Starr, Scott M., et al. (författare)
  • Spatial and temporal organization of macroinvertebrate assemblages in a lowland floodplain ecosystem
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Landscape Ecology. - : Springer. - 0921-2973 .- 1572-9761. ; 29:6, s. 1017-1031
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An important goal in ecology is to understand controls on community structure in spatially and temporally heterogeneous landscapes, a challenge for which riverine floodplains provide ideal laboratories. We evaluated how spatial position, local habitat features, and seasonal flooding interact to shape aquatic invertebrate community composition in an unregulated riverine floodplain in western Alabama (USA). We quantified sediment invertebrate assemblages and habitat variables at 23 sites over a 15-month period. Dissolved oxygen (DO) varied seasonally and among habitats, with sites less connected to the river channel experiencing frequent hypoxia (< 2 mg O-2 L-1) at the sediment-water interface. Differences in water temperature among sites were lowest (< 1 A degrees C) during winter floodplain inundation, but increased to > 14 A degrees C during spring and summer as sites became isolated. Overall, local habitat conditions were more important in explaining patterns in assemblage structure than was spatial position in the floodplain (e.g., distance to the main river channel). DO was an important predictor of taxonomic richness among sites, which was highest where hydrologic connections to the main river channel were strongest. Compositional heterogeneity across the floodplain was lowest immediately following inundation and increased as individual sites became hydrologically isolated. Our results illustrate how geomorphic structure and seasonal flooding interact to shape floodplain aquatic assemblages. The flood pulse of lowland rivers influences biodiversity through effects of connectivity on hydrologic flushing in different floodplain habitats, which may prevent the development of harsh environmental conditions that exclude certain taxa. Such interactions highlight the ongoing consequences of river regulation for taxonomically diverse floodplain ecosystems.
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