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1.
  • Alexeyev, Oleg, et al. (författare)
  • Association between the presence of bacterial 16S RNA in prostate specimens taken during transurethral resection of prostate and subsequent risk of prostate cancer (Sweden)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 17:9, s. 1127-1133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study bacterial 16S RNA in archival prostate samples from 352 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and evaluate whether the presence of bacterial DNA was different in those who later developed prostate cancer (n = 171) and in the matched controls that did not progress to cancer (n = 181).Methods: 16S DNA PCR followed by cloning and sequencing the positive samples.Results: In 96/352 (27%) of the prostate tissue specimens 16S RNA were detected. Sequence analysis revealed Propionibacterium acnes as the predominant microorganism (23% of 16S RNA positive patients). The second most frequent isolate—Escherichia coli was found in 12 (12%) patients. The other isolates included Pseudomonas sp. (3 patients), Actinomyces sp. (2), Streptococcus mutans (1), Corynebacterium sp. (2),Nocardioides sp. (1), Rhodococcus sp. (1) Veillonella sp. (2). In P. acnes positive samples 62% exhibited severe histological inflammation versus 50% in the bacteria-negative group (p = 0.602). The presence of P. acnes in the prostate was associated with prostate cancer development (OR 2.17, 95% CI 0.77–6.95).Conclusions: This study has revealed P. acnes as the most common bacteria in the prostate in BPH. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in contributing to the development of prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer.
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2.
  • Cahill, N., et al. (författare)
  • 450K-array analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells reveals global DNA methylation to be relatively stable over time and similar in resting and proliferative compartments
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Leukemia. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5551 .- 0887-6924. ; 27:1, s. 150-158
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the microenvironment influences gene expression patterns; however, knowledge is limited regarding the extent to which methylation changes with time and exposure to specific microenvironments. Using high-resolution 450K arrays, we provide the most comprehensive DNA methylation study of CLL to date, analyzing paired diagnostic/follow-up samples from IGHV-mutated/untreated and IGHV-unmutated/treated patients (n = 36) and patient-matched peripheral blood and lymph node samples (n = 20). On an unprecedented scale, we revealed 2239 differentially methylated CpG sites between IGHV-mutated and unmutated patients, with the majority of sites positioned outside annotated CpG islands. Intriguingly, CLL prognostic genes (for example, CLLU1, LPL, ZAP70 and NOTCH1), epigenetic regulator (for example, HDAC9, HDAC4 and DNMT3B), B-cell signaling (for example, IBTK) and numerous TGF-beta and NF-kappa B/TNF pathway genes were alternatively methylated between subgroups. Contrary, DNA methylation over time was deemed rather stable with few recurrent changes noted within subgroups. Although a larger number of non-recurrent changes were identified among IGHV-unmutated relative to mutated cases over time, these equated to a low global change. Similarly, few changes were identified between compartment cases. Altogether, we reveal CLL subgroups to display unique methylation profiles and unveil methylation as relatively stable over time and similar within different CLL compartments, implying aberrant methylation as an early leukemogenic event. Leukemia (2013) 27, 150-158; doi:10.1038/leu.2012.245
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3.
  • Iglesias-Gato, Diego, et al. (författare)
  • The Proteome of Primary Prostate Cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - : Elsevier. - 0302-2838 .- 1873-7560. ; 69:5, s. 942-952
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Clinical management of the prostate needs improved prognostic tests and treatment strategies. Because proteins are the ultimate effectors of most cellular reactions, are targets for drug actions and constitute potential biomarkers; a quantitative systemic overview of the proteome changes occurring during prostate cancer (PCa) initiation and progression can result in clinically relevant discoveries.Objectives: To study cellular processes altered in PCa using system-wide quantitative analysis of changes in protein expression in clinical samples and to identify prognostic biomarkers for disease aggressiveness.Design, setting, and participants: Mass spectrometry was used for genome-scale quantitative proteomic profiling of 28 prostate tumors (Gleason score 6-9) and neighboring nonmalignant tissue in eight cases, obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostatectomy samples. Two independent cohorts of PCa patients (summing 752 cases) managed by expectancy were used for immunohistochemical evaluation of proneuropeptide-Y (pro-NPY) as a prognostic biomarker.Results and limitations: Over 9000 proteins were identified as expressed in the human prostate. Tumor tissue exhibited elevated expression of proteins involved in multiple anabolic processes including fatty acid and protein synthesis, ribosomal biogenesis and protein secretion but no overt evidence of increased proliferation was observed. Tumors also showed increased levels of mitochondrial proteins, which was associated with elevated oxidative phosphorylation capacity measured in situ. Molecular analysis indicated that some of the proteins overexpressed in tumors, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2, fatty acid transporter), coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA, vesicle secretion), and mitogen-and stress-activated protein kinase 1 and 2 (MSK1/2, protein kinase) regulate the proliferation of PCa cells. Additionally, pro-NPY was found overexpressed in PCa (5-fold, p < 0.05), but largely absent in other solid tumor types. Pro-NPY expression, alone or in combination with the ERG status of the tumor, was associated with an increased risk of PCa specific mortality, especially in patients with Gleason score <= 7 tumors.Conclusions: This study represents the first system-wide quantitative analysis of proteome changes associated to localized prostate cancer and as such constitutes a valuable resource for understanding the complex metabolic changes occurring in this disease. We also demonstrated that pro-NPY, a protein that showed differential expression between high and low risk tumors in our proteomic analysis, is also a PCa specific prognostic biomarker associated with increased risk for disease specific death in patients carrying low risk tumors.Patient summary: The identification of proteins whose expression change in prostate cancer provides novel mechanistic information related to the disease etiology. We hope that future studies will prove the value of this proteome dataset for development of novel therapies and biomarkers. (C) 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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4.
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5.
  • Wedin, Rikard, et al. (författare)
  • Complications and survival after surgical treatment of 214 metastatic lesions of the humerus
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. - : Mosby. - 1058-2746 .- 1532-6500. ; 21:8, s. 1049-1055
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The humerus is the second most common long-bone site of metastatic bone disease. We report complications, risk factors for failure, and survival of a large series of patients operated on for skeletal metastases of the humerus. Materials and methods: This study was based on 208 patients treated surgically for 214 metastatic lesions of the humerus. Reconstructions were achieved by intramedullary nails in 148, endoprostheses in 35, plate fixation in 21, and by other methods in 10. Results: The median age at surgery was 67 years (range, 29-87 years). Breast cancer was the primary tumor in 31%. The overall failure rate of the surgical reconstructions was 9%. The reoperation rate was 7% in the proximal humerus, 8% in the diaphysis, and 33% in the distal part of the bone. Among 36 operations involving an endoprosthesis, 2 were failures (6%) compared with 18 of 178 osteosynthetic devices (10%). In the osteosynthesis group, intramedullary nails failed in 7% and plate fixation failed in 22%. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that prostate cancer was associated with an increased risk of failure after surgery (hazard ratio, 7; P < 0.033). The cumulative survival after surgery was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34-47) at 1 year, 21% (95% CI, 15-26) at 2 years, and 16% (95% CI, 12-19) at 3 years. Conclusions: Our method of choice is the cemented hemiprosthesis for pathologic proximal humeral fractures and interlocked intramedullary nail for lesions in the diaphysis. Pathologic fractures in the distal humerus are uncommon and associated with a very high reoperation rate. Level of evidence: Level IV, Case Series, Treatment Study. (C) 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees.
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6.
  • Ahlqvist-Rastad, Jane, et al. (författare)
  • Erythropoietin therapy and cancer related anaemia: updated Swedish recommendations
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Medical Oncology. - : Humana Press. - 1559-131X. ; 24:3, s. 267-272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Due to concerns related to treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) and possible negative effects on tumour control, a workshop was organised by the Medical Products Agency of Sweden with the aim to revise national treatment guidelines if needed. In patients with solid tumours, conflicting results have been reported with respect to tumour control and survival. Until further notice it is therefore recommended that EPO should be used restrictively in the treatment of patients with cancer and that the anticipated improvement in quality of life should be evaluated against potential risks.
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7.
  • Bergh, Ann-Charlotte, et al. (författare)
  • Silenced B-cell receptor response to autoantigen in a poor-prognostic subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Haematologica (online). - : Ferrata Storti Foundation. - 0390-6078 .- 1592-8721. ; 99:11, s. 1722-1730
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells express auto/xeno antigen-reactive antibodies that bind to self-epitopes and resemble natural IgM antibodies in their repertoire. One of the antigenic structures recognized is oxidation-induced malonedialdehyde that is present on low-density lipoprotein, apoptotic blebs, and on certain microbes. The poor-prognostic stereotyped subset #1 (Clan I IGHV genes-IGKV1(D)-39) express IgM B-cell receptors that bind oxidized low-density lipoprotein. In this study, we have used for the first time this authentic cognate antigen for analysis of downstream B-cell receptor-signal transduction events, since it is more faithful to B-cell physiology than anti-IgM. Multivalent oxidized low-density lipoprotein showed specific binding to subset #1 IgM/IgD B-cell receptors, whereas native low-density lipoprotein did not. The antigen binding induced prompt receptor clustering followed by internalization. However, the receptor-signal transduction was silenced, revealing no Ca2+ mobilization or cell-cycle entry, while phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 basal levels were high and could not be elevated further by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Interestingly, B-cell receptor responsiveness was recovered after 48-h culture in the absence of antigen in half of the cases. Toll-like receptor 9-ligand was found to breach the B-cell receptor-signaling incompetence in 5 of 12 cases pointing to intra-subset heterogeneity. Altogether, this study supports B-cell receptor unresponsiveness to cognate self-antigen on its own in poor-prognostic subset #1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, indicating that these cells proliferate by other mechanisms that may override B-cell receptor silencing brought about in a context of self-tolerance/anergy. These novel findings have implications for the understanding of chronic lymphocytic leukemia pathobiology and therapy.
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8.
  • Bergh, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cobalt-mediated solid phase synthesis of 3-O-alkynylbenzyl galactosides and their evaluation as galectin inhibitors
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Tetrahedron. - : Elsevier. - 0040-4020. ; 62:35, s. 8309-8317
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methyl beta-D-galactoside was converted to the corresponding 3,4-O-stannylene acetal, which was selectively benzylated with 3-iodobenzyl bromide and coupled to a polymer-bound propargylic ether via a Sonogashira reaction. The polymer-bound carbohydrate substrate was cleaved from the resin with different carbon nucleophiles in a cobalt-mediated Nicholas reaction. The product 3-O-alkynylbenzyl galactosides were screened towards galectin-1, -3, -7, -8N and -9N in a competitive fluorescence polarisation assay. Particularly potent inhibitors were identified against galectin-7 with affinity enhancements up to one order of magnitude due to the 3-O-alkynylbenzyl moiety. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Bovinder Ylitalo, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Subgroups of castration-resistant prostate cancer bone metastases defined through an inverse relationship between androgen receptor activity and immune response
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - 0302-2838 .- 1873-7560. ; 71:5, s. 776-787
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Novel therapies for men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are needed, particularly for cancers not driven by androgen receptor (AR) activation. Objectives: To identify molecular subgroups of PC bone metastases of relevance for therapy.Design, setting, and participants: Fresh-frozen bone metastasis samples from men with CRPC (n = 40), treatment-naïve PC (n = 8), or other malignancies (n = 12) were characterized using whole-genome expression profiling, multivariate principal component analysis (PCA), and functional enrichment analysis. Expression profiles were verified by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in an extended set of bone metastases (n = 77) and compared to levels in malignant and adjacent benign prostate tissue from patients with localized disease (n = 12). Selected proteins were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. A cohort of PC patients (n = 284) diagnosed at transurethral resection with long follow-up was used for prognostic evaluation.Results and limitations: The majority of CRPC bone metastases (80%) was defined as AR-driven based on PCA analysis and high expression of the AR, AR co-regulators (FOXA1, HOXB13), and AR-regulated genes (KLK2, KLK3, NKX3.1, STEAP2, TMPRSS2); 20% were non–AR-driven. Functional enrichment analysis indicated high metabolic activity and low immune responses in AR-driven metastases. Accordingly, infiltration of CD3+ and CD68+ cells was lower in AR-driven than in non–AR-driven metastases, and tumor cell HLA class I ABC immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with nuclear AR immunoreactivity. RT-PCR analysis showed low MHC class I expression (HLA-A, TAP1, and PSMB9 mRNA) in PC bone metastases compared to benign and malignant prostate tissue and bone metastases of other origins. In primary PC, low HLA class I ABC immunoreactivity was associated with high Gleason score, bone metastasis, and short cancer-specific survival. Limitations include the limited number of patients studied and the single metastasis sample studied per patient.Conclusions: Most CRPC bone metastases show high AR and metabolic activities and low immune responses. A subgroup instead shows low AR and metabolic activities, but high immune responses. Targeted therapy for these groups should be explored. Patient summary: We studied heterogeneities at a molecular level in bone metastasis samples obtained from men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. We found differences of possible importance for therapy selection in individual patients.
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10.
  • Bylund, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Anticancer effects of a plant lignan 7-hydroxymatairesinol on a prostate cancer model in vivo.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.. - 1535-3702 .- 1535-3699. ; 230:3, s. 217-223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinical intervention studies and experimental studies with lignan-rich diets suggest that lignans may have inhibitory effects on prostate cancer, but no clinical or experimental studies with purified lignans have been published. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a plant lignan 7-hydroxymatairesinol (HMR) on LNCaP human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic mice. Athymic nude male mice were injected subcutaneously with LNCaP cells. Starting 3 days after tumor cell injections, a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 0.15% or 0.30% of HMR was administered to mice and the tumor take rate and growth was observed for 9 weeks. HMR diet inhibited the growth of LNCaP tumors. Mice treated with HMR had smaller tumor volume, lower tumor take rate, increased proportion of nongrowing tumors, and higher tumor cell apoptotic index compared with controls. Furthermore, the cell proliferation index was reduced in mice receiving the 0.30% HMR diet compared with mice receiving the control diet. Our results suggest that dietary HMR started at the early phase of the tumor development inhibits the growth of the LNCaP human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic male mice.
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