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  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in metabolic genes related to tobacco smoke and the risk of gastric cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 15:12, s. 2427-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolizing enzymes, which often display genetic polymorphisms, are involved in the activation of compounds present in tobacco smoke that may be relevant to gastric carcinogenesis. We report the results of a study looking at the association between risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and polymorphisms in genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, and GSTT1. A nested case-control study was carried out within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, developed in 10 European countries. The study includes 243 newly diagnosed cases of histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma and 946 controls matched by center, age, sex, and date of blood collection. Genotypes were determined in nuclear DNA from WBCs. We found an increased risk of gastric cancer for homozygotes for C (histidine) variant in Y113H of EPHX1 (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.07) compared with subjects with TC/TT. There was also a significant increased risk for smokers carrying at least one variant allele A in Ex7+129C > A (m4) of CYP1A1 and never smokers with null GSTT1 and allele A in the locus -3859G > A of CYP1A2. Most of these genes are involved in the activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, suggesting a potential role of these compounds in gastric carcinogenesis.
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5.
  • Berglund, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • A Method for Visualization of Surface Texture Anisotropy in Different Scales of Observation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scanning. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0161-0457. ; 33:5, s. 325-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anisotropy of functional surfaces can in many practical cases significantly influence the surface function. Tribological contacts in sheet forming and engine applications are good examples. This article introduces and exemplifies a method for visualization of anisotropy. In a single graph, surface texture properties related to the anisotropy as a function of scale are plotted. The anisotropy graph can be used to explain anisotropy properties of a studied surface such as texture direction and texture strength at different scales of observation. Examples of milled steel surfaces and a textured steel sheet surface are presented to support the proposed methodology. Different aspects of the studied surfaces could clearly be seen at different scales. Future steps to improve filtering techniques and an introduction of length-scale analysis are discussed.
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6.
  • Berglund, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • On finishing of pressing die surfaces using machine hammer peening
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. - Berlin : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 0268-3768. ; 52:1-4, s. 115-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Machine hammer peening (MHP) is a new method for finishing of surfaces. With this method, the workpiece surface is hammered with a spherical carbide tool. The main objective of the study was to evaluate whether the MHP method could become a plausible substitute for manual polishing in pressing die manufacturing where nodular cast iron is a common workpiece material. To do this, sample nodular cast iron surfaces were hammered and evaluated. Changes to the surfaces were evaluated using surface roughness measurements, hardness measurements and optical images. First of all, the workpiece surface was smoothened. Secondly, the surface hardness was increased significantly. Thirdly, the nodules on the workpiece surface were affected. They appeared to be smaller and not as visible. This effect would likely create a die surface less prone to galling since the cavities would not be filled with sheet metal to the same extent in a forming operation. In addition, with MHP, the amount of polishing needed to manufacture a die surface can be reduced because of the smoothening effect.
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7.
  • Berglund, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Robust and Easy to Use Quality Control of Roughness on Milled Tool Steel Surfaces
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing : FAIM 2008, June 30th – July 2nd, 2008 University of Skövde, Sweden. - Skövde : Skövde University. - 978-91-633-2757-5 ; s. 284-289
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study was an evaluation of measuring strategies using a handheld 2D profiler for quality control of finish milled tool steel with regard to surface roughness. A selection of ball nose end mills in combination with two different tool steels (hardness 39 and 47 HRC) were used to manufacture the surfaces that were to be measured. It was found that using an appropriate measuring strategy it is possible to measure the roughness of these relatively smooth surfaces (0.1<1µm) with satisfactory accuracy using a handheld profiler. However, it was also found that, in contrast to what is common practice, Ra is not a suitable parameter to use for evaluation. Instead, using Rz or Rp is suggested. To be able to control quality, the machining process (selection of cutting tool, cutting data, workpiece material etc) as well as limits for the evaluated parameters first have to be established.
8.
  • Berglund, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Surface Finish and Roughness Measurement in Die and Mould Manufacturing
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2'nd Swedish Production Symposium. ; s. 385-391
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In die and mould manufacturing, the method used for quality control of finished surfaces is usually visual and tactile inspection of the finish, which is not easily quantifiable. In this study, an evaluation of the connection between surface finish appearance and measured surface roughness was carried out using scale-sensitive fractal analysis to find functional correlations and to determine suitable cut-off limits for functional data filtration. A selection of ball nose end mills in combination with two different tool steels (hardness 39 and 47 HRC) were used to manufacture surfaces that were measured. It was found that the method employed in this study for evaluating functional correlations and designing filters worked well. It was also found that there is a correlation between the surface roughness parameter Sq and the surface finish appearance and that this correlation is stronger in certain wavelengths on the surface.
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9.
  • Bingham, Sheila A, et al. (författare)
  • Is the association with fiber from foods in colorectal cancer confounded by folate intake?
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 14:6, s. 1552-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of multivariate adjustment including folate on the strong protective effect of fiber in foods on colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition was investigated in 1,721 cases identified in the latest follow-up. The inclusion of an additional 656 cases confirmed our previously published results, with a strong and significant reduction in colorectal cancer risk of similar to 9% for each uncalibrated quintile increase in fiber (P-linear trend < 0.001) compared with an 8% reduction in our previous report, which had not been adjusted for folate. Inclusion of the other covariates (physical activity, alcohol, smoking, and red and processed meat) confirmed this significant inverse association for colon cancer and strengthened the association with left-sided colon cancer (P < 0.001). After maximum adjustment, the association between fiber and rectal cancer was not significant, as in our previous analysis. The association with fiber from different food sources was analyzed, but again, there were no significance trends after maximum adjustment.
10.
  • Borgquist, Signe, et al. (författare)
  • Diet and body constitution in relation to sub-groups of breast cancer defined by tumour grade, proliferation and key cell cycle regulators.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central. - 1465-5411. ; 9:1, s. 11-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The general lack of clear associations between diet and breast cancer in epidemiological studies may partly be explained by the fact that breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that may have disparate genetic associations and different aetiological bases. Method A total of 346 incident breast cancers in a prospective cohort of 17,035 women enrolled in the Malmo Diet and Cancer study ( Sweden) were subcategorized according to conventional pathology parameters, proliferation and expression of key cell cycle regulators. Subcategories were compared with prediagnostic diet and body measurements using analysis of variance. Results A large hip circumference and high body mass index were associated with high grade tumours ( P = 0.03 and 0.009, respectively), whereas low energy and unadjusted fat intakes were associated with high proliferation ( P = 0.03 and 0.004, respectively). Low intakes of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also associated with high proliferation ( P = 0.02, 0.004 and 0.003, respectively). Low energy and unadjusted fat intakes were associated with cyclin D-1 overexpression ( P = 0.02 and 0.007, respectively), whereas cyclin E overexpression was positively correlated with fat intake. Oestrogen receptor status and expression of the tumour suppressor gene p27 were not associated with either diet or body constitution. Conclusion Low energy and low total fat ( polyunsaturated fatty acids in particular) intakes, and high body mass index were associated with relatively more malignant breast tumours. Dietary behaviours and body constitution may be associated with specific types of breast cancer defined by conventional pathology parameters and cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression. Further studies including healthy control individuals are needed to confirm our results.
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