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  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in metabolic genes related to tobacco smoke and the risk of gastric cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 15:12, s. 2427-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolizing enzymes, which often display genetic polymorphisms, are involved in the activation of compounds present in tobacco smoke that may be relevant to gastric carcinogenesis. We report the results of a study looking at the association between risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and polymorphisms in genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, and GSTT1. A nested case-control study was carried out within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, developed in 10 European countries. The study includes 243 newly diagnosed cases of histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma and 946 controls matched by center, age, sex, and date of blood collection. Genotypes were determined in nuclear DNA from WBCs. We found an increased risk of gastric cancer for homozygotes for C (histidine) variant in Y113H of EPHX1 (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.07) compared with subjects with TC/TT. There was also a significant increased risk for smokers carrying at least one variant allele A in Ex7+129C > A (m4) of CYP1A1 and never smokers with null GSTT1 and allele A in the locus -3859G > A of CYP1A2. Most of these genes are involved in the activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, suggesting a potential role of these compounds in gastric carcinogenesis.
  • Baskaran, Preetisri, et al. (författare)
  • Modelling the influence of ectomycorrhizal decomposition on plant nutrition and soil carbon sequestration in boreal forest ecosystems
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: NEW PHYTOLOGIST. - 1469-8137. ; 213:3, s. 1452-1465
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tree growth in boreal forests is limited by nitrogen (N) availability. Most boreal forest trees form symbiotic associations with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, which improve the uptake of inorganic N and also have the capacity to decompose soil organic matter (SOM) and to mobilize organic N (&lsquo;ECM decomposition').<br />To study the effects of &lsquo;ECM decomposition' on ecosystem carbon (C) and N balances, we performed a sensitivity analysis on a model of C and N flows between plants, SOM, saprotrophs, ECM fungi, and inorganic N stores.<br />The analysis indicates that C and N balances were sensitive to model parameters regulating ECM biomass and decomposition. Under low N availability, the optimal C allocation to ECM fungi, above which the symbiosis switches from mutualism to parasitism, increases with increasing relative involvement of ECM fungi in SOM decomposition. Under low N conditions, increased ECM organic N mining promotes tree growth but decreases soil C storage, leading to a negative correlation between C stores above- and below-ground.<br />The interplay between plant production and soil C storage is sensitive to the partitioning of decomposition between ECM fungi and saprotrophs. Better understanding of interactions between functional guilds of soil fungi may significantly improve predictions of ecosystem responses to environmental change.
  • Berglund, J., et al. (författare)
  • A method development for correlation of surface finish appearance of die surfaces and roughness measurement data
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Tribology letters. - Berlin : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 1023-8883. ; 36:2, s. 157-164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In die and mould manufacturing, the method used for quality control of finished surfaces is usually visual and tactile inspection of the finish, which is not easily quantifiable. In the present study, an evaluation of the connection between surface finish appearance and measured surface roughness was carried out using scale-sensitive fractal analysis to find functional correlations and to determine suitable cut-off limits for functional data filtration. A selection of ball-nose end-mills in combination with two different tool steels (hardness 39 and 47 HRC) were used to manufacture surfaces that were inspected and measured. It was found that the method developed in the present study for evaluating functional correlations and designing filters worked well. It was also found that there is a correlation between the surface roughness parameter Sq and the surface finish appearance and that this correlation is stronger in certain wavelengths on the surface.
  • Berglund, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • A Method for Visualization of Surface Texture Anisotropy in Different Scales of Observation
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scanning. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0161-0457. ; 33:5, s. 325-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anisotropy of functional surfaces can in many practical cases significantly influence the surface function. Tribological contacts in sheet forming and engine applications are good examples. This article introduces and exemplifies a method for visualization of anisotropy. In a single graph, surface texture properties related to the anisotropy as a function of scale are plotted. The anisotropy graph can be used to explain anisotropy properties of a studied surface such as texture direction and texture strength at different scales of observation. Examples of milled steel surfaces and a textured steel sheet surface are presented to support the proposed methodology. Different aspects of the studied surfaces could clearly be seen at different scales. Future steps to improve filtering techniques and an introduction of length-scale analysis are discussed.
  • Berglund, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Novel origins of copy number variation in the dog genome
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 13:8, s. R73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Copy number variants (CNVs) account for substantial variation between genomes and are a major source of normal and pathogenic phenotypic differences. The dog is an ideal model to investigate mutational mechanisms that generate CNVs as its genome lacks a functional ortholog of the PRDM9 gene implicated in recombination and CNV formation in humans. Here we comprehensively assay CNVs using high-density array comparative genomic hybridization in 50 dogs from 17 dog breeds and 3 gray wolves. RESULTS: We use a stringent new method to identify a total of 430 high-confidence CNV loci, which range in size from 9 kb to 1.6 Mb and span 26.4 Mb, or 1.08%, of the assayed dog genome, overlapping 413 annotated genes. Of CNVs observed in each breed, 98% are also observed in multiple breeds. CNVs predicted to disrupt gene function are significantly less common than expected by chance. We identify a significant overrepresentation of peaks of GC content, previously shown to be enriched in dog recombination hotspots, in the vicinity of CNV breakpoints. CONCLUSIONS: A number of the CNVs identified by this study are candidates for generating breed-specific phenotypes. Purifying selection seems to be a major factor shaping structural variation in the dog genome, suggesting that many CNVs are deleterious. Localized peaks of GC content appear to be novel sites of CNV formation in the dog genome by non-allelic homologous recombination, potentially activated by the loss of PRDM9. These sequence features may have driven genome instability and chromosomal rearrangements throughout canid evolution.
  • Berglund, J., et al. (författare)
  • On discovering relevant scales in surface roughness measurement : an evaluation of a band-pass method
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scanning. - London : John Wiley & Sons. - 0161-0457. ; 32:4, s. 244-249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • When characterizing surfaces and searching for correlations to functional properties, such as friction, finding the right scale of roughness for evaluation can improve correlations. However, in traditional roughness parameter analysis, a wide range of scales, or all scales of topography in the surface roughness measurements are evaluated together. In this study a multi-scale method using a series of band-pass filters is employed for finding scales of topography with strong correlations to friction.
  • Berglund, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • On finishing of pressing die surfaces using machine hammer peening
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. - Berlin : Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. - 0268-3768. ; 52:1-4, s. 115-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Machine hammer peening (MHP) is a new method for finishing of surfaces. With this method, the workpiece surface is hammered with a spherical carbide tool. The main objective of the study was to evaluate whether the MHP method could become a plausible substitute for manual polishing in pressing die manufacturing where nodular cast iron is a common workpiece material. To do this, sample nodular cast iron surfaces were hammered and evaluated. Changes to the surfaces were evaluated using surface roughness measurements, hardness measurements and optical images. First of all, the workpiece surface was smoothened. Secondly, the surface hardness was increased significantly. Thirdly, the nodules on the workpiece surface were affected. They appeared to be smaller and not as visible. This effect would likely create a die surface less prone to galling since the cavities would not be filled with sheet metal to the same extent in a forming operation. In addition, with MHP, the amount of polishing needed to manufacture a die surface can be reduced because of the smoothening effect.
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