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1.
  • Bergman, Ake, et al. (författare)
  • Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed : a reply to a "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Environmental health. - : BioMed Central. - 1476-069X .- 1476-069X. ; 12, s. 69-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a recently published, and is in our considered opinion inaccurate and factually incorrect, editorial that has appeared in several journals in toxicology. Some of the shortcomings of the editorial are discussed in detail. We call for a better founded scientific debate which may help to overcome a polarisation of views detrimental to reaching a consensus about scientific foundations for endocrine disrupter regulation in the EU.
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2.
  • Christiansson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins - A source of human exposure?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Chemosphere. - : Elsevier. - 1879-1298 .- 0045-6535. ; 73:10, s. 1654-1660
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Commercial aircrafts need a high degree of fire protection for passenger safety. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), may be used for this purpose. Because PBDEs readily absorb to dust particles, aircraft crew and passengers may receive significant PBDEs exposure via inhalation. The aims of this work were to assess whether PBDEs could be found in aircraft cabin dust and whether serum levels of PBDEs increased in passengers after long-distance flights. Hence nine subjects on intercontinental flights collected cabin dust samples, as well as donated blood samples before departure and after return to Sweden. Two subjects who were domestic frequent flyers were also investigated. The levels of PBDEs in dust and serum were determined by GC/MS in electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) mode. Authentic reference substances were used for identification and quantitation. PBDEs were found in all aircraft dust samples at high concentrations, higher than in common household dust. Congener patterns indicated that the technical products PentaBDE, OctaBDE and DecaBDE were used in the aircrafts. Serum concentrations in the travellers were similar to those observed in Swedish residents in general. Post-travel serum levels of BDE-28. BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154 were significantly higher(p<0.05) than concentrations prior to travel. The findings from this pilot study call for investigations of occupational exposures to PBDEs in cabin and cockpit crews. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Drakvik, E., et al. (författare)
  • Statement on advancing the assessment of chemical mixtures and their risks for human health and the environment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - : Elsevier. - 0160-4120 .- 1873-6750. ; 134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The number of anthropogenic chemicals, manufactured, by-products, metabolites and abiotically formed transformation products, counts to hundreds of thousands, at present. Thus, humans and wildlife are exposed to complex mixtures, never one chemical at a time and rarely with only one dominating effect. Hence there is an urgent need to develop strategies on how exposure to multiple hazardous chemicals and the combination of their effects can be assessed. A workshop, “Advancing the Assessment of Chemical Mixtures and their Risks for Human Health and the Environment” was organized in May 2018 together with Joint Research Center in Ispra, EU-funded research projects and Commission Services and relevant EU agencies. This forum for researchers and policy-makers was created to discuss and identify gaps in risk assessment and governance of chemical mixtures as well as to discuss state of the art science and future research needs. Based on the presentations and discussions at this workshop we want to bring forward the following Key Messages: • We are at a turning point: multiple exposures and their combined effects require better management to protect public health and the environment from hazardous chemical mixtures. • Regulatory initiatives should be launched to investigate the opportunities for all relevant regulatory frameworks to include prospective mixture risk assessment and consider combined exposures to (real-life) chemical mixtures to humans and wildlife, across sectors. • Precautionary approaches and intermediate measures (e.g. Mixture Assessment Factor) can already be applied, although, definitive mixture risk assessments cannot be routinely conducted due to significant knowledge and data gaps. • A European strategy needs to be set, through stakeholder engagement, for the governance of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and mixtures. The strategy would include research aimed at scientific advancement in mechanistic understanding and modelling techniques, as well as research to address regulatory and policy needs. Without such a clear strategy, specific objectives and common priorities, research, and policies to address mixtures will likely remain scattered and insufficient. © 2019 The Authors
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4.
  • Lind, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Uppsala Consensus Statement on Environmental Contaminants and the Global Obesity Epidemic
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : US DEPT HEALTH HUMAN SCIENCES PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCE. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 124:5, s. A81-A83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • From the lectures presented at the 2nd International Workshop on Obesity and Environmental Contaminants, which was held in Uppsala, Sweden, on 8-9 October 2015, it became evident that the findings from numerous animal and epidemiological studies are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental contaminants could contribute to the global obesity epidemic. To increase awareness of this important issue among scientists, regulatory agencies, politicians, chemical industry management, and the general public, the authors summarize compelling scientific evidence that supports the hypothesis and discuss actions that could restrict the possible harmful effects of environmental contaminants on obesity.
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5.
  • Malkiewicz, Katarzyna, et al. (författare)
  • Human experts' judgment of chemicals reactivity for identification of hazardous chemicals
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Toxicology Letters. - 0378-4274 .- 1879-3169. ; 189, s. S243-S243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The development of non-testing approaches for the identification of chemicals with the potential to cause environmental hazards, have gained increased attention. In this study the hypothesis that experts’ judgement of chemical reactivity could be used for this purpose has been tested. The judgments of chemical reactivity for 200 organic chemicals, based on their molecular structure were performed by four senior organic and environmental chemists. Potentials for reactivity (namely: oxidative/reductive reactivity, hydrolysis, direct photolysis, reactivity towards radicals) were scored on the 1– scale. Both the experts’ individual judgment, and a compromised judgment after joint discussion for clarification of cases with divergent opinions, was analysed. Furthermore we searched for relations between the expert judgement data and: (a) the chemical characteristics representedby 40 chemical descriptors using partial least squares regression (PLS), and (b) experimental and in silico data for different toxicological and physico-chemical end-points. The results of on-going analyses indicate that for the majority of the chemicals, the individual judgments differed significantly between experts but after discussion among the experts for clarification, the judgments becamemuch more concurrent. The relation between averaged experts’ predicted photolytic degradation potential and chemical characteristic based on a PLS model (with three significant components explaining 76% of the variation) was found. We have also found that in the group of the chemicals with the higher score of the experts judged oxidative reactivity there was higher percentage of biodegradable chemicals when compar
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6.
  • Sandin, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Precautionary defaults - A new strategy for chemical risk management
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1080-7039 .- 1549-7860. ; 10:1, s. 1-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to give adequate support to risk managers, new risk assessment methods should be developed that are (1) scientifically sound, (2) simplified, and (3) suited for precautionary risk management. In this Perspective we propose that the notion of a precautionary default can be a useful tool in the development of such methods. A precautionary default is a cautious or pessimistic assumption that is used in the absence of adequate information and that should be replaced when such information is obtained. Furthermore, we point out some promising research areas for the development of such indicators, viz. connections between chemical characteristics such as persistence and effect parameters, monitoring of contaminants in polar regions, monitoring of contaminants in breast milk, application of results from (human) toxicology in ecotoxicology and vice versa, (eco) toxicological test systems that are sensitive to effects on reproduction, and the application of bioinformatic methods to complex data, both in genomic research and in ecotoxicology. We conclude that precautionary decision-making does not require less science, but to the contrary it requires more science and improved communication between scientists and risk managers.
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7.
  • Strid, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Chemosphere. - : Elsevier. - 0045-6535 .- 1879-1298. ; 116:SI, s. 83-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group.
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8.
  • Vandenberg, Laura N., et al. (författare)
  • A proposed framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of endocrine disrupting chemicals
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental health. - London : BioMed Central. - 1476-069X .- 1476-069X. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The issue of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is receiving wide attention from both the scientific and regulatory communities. Recent analyses of the EDC literature have been criticized for failing to use transparent and objective approaches to draw conclusions about the strength of evidence linking EDC exposures to adverse health or environmental outcomes. Systematic review methodologies are ideal for addressing this issue as they provide transparent and consistent approaches to study selection and evaluation. Objective methods are needed for integrating the multiple streams of evidence (epidemiology, wildlife, laboratory animal, in vitro, and in silico data) that are relevant in assessing EDCs.Methods: We have developed a framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of EDC studies. The framework was designed for use with the International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and World Health Organization (WHO) definition of an EDC, which requires appraisal of evidence regarding 1) association between exposure and an adverse effect, 2) association between exposure and endocrine disrupting activity, and 3) a plausible link between the adverse effect and the endocrine disrupting activity.Results: Building from existing methodologies for evaluating and synthesizing evidence, the SYRINA framework includes seven steps: 1) Formulate the problem; 2) Develop the review protocol; 3) Identify relevant evidence; 4) Evaluate evidence from individual studies; 5) Summarize and evaluate each stream of evidence; 6) Integrate evidence across all streams; 7) Draw conclusions, make recommendations, and evaluate uncertainties. The proposed method is tailored to the IPCS/WHO definition of an EDC but offers flexibility for use in the context of other definitions of EDCs.Conclusions: When using the SYRINA framework, the overall objective is to provide the evidence base needed to support decision making, including any action to avoid/minimise potential adverse effects of exposures. This framework allows for the evaluation and synthesis of evidence from multiple evidence streams. Finally, a decision regarding regulatory action is not only dependent on the strength of evidence, but also the consequences of action/inaction, e.g. limited or weak evidence may be sufficient to justify action if consequences are serious or irreversible.
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9.
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10.
  • Al-Anati, Lauy, et al. (författare)
  • Hydroxyl metabolite of PCB 180 induces DNA damage signaling and enhances the DNA damaging effect of benzo[a]pyrene
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Chemico-Biological Interactions. - : Elsevier. - 0009-2797 .- 1872-7786. ; 239, s. 164-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxyl metabolites (OH-PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in human tissues and blood. The toxicological impact of these metabolites is poorly understood. In this study rats were exposed to ultrapure PCB180 (10-1000 mg/kg bw) for 28 days and induction of genotoxic stress in liver was investigated. DNA damage signaling proteins (pChk1Ser317 and gamma H2AXSer319) were increased dose dependently in female rats. This increase was paralleled by increasing levels of the metabolite 3'-OH-PCB180. pChk1 was the most sensitive marker. In in vitro studies HepG2 cells were exposed to 1 mu M of PCB180 and 3'-OH-PCB180 or the positive control benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 5 mu M). 3'-OH-PCB180, but not PCB180, induced CYP1A1 mRNA and gamma H2AX. CYP1A1 mRNA induction was seen at 1 h, and gamma H2AX at 3 h. The anti-oxidant N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) completely prevented, and 17 beta-estradiol amplified the gamma H2AX induction by 3'-OH-PCB180. As 3'-OH-PCB180 induced CYP1A1, a major BaP-metabolizing and activating enzyme, interactions between 3'-OH-PCB180 and BaP was also studied. The metabolite amplified the DNA damage signaling response to BaP. In conclusion, metabolism of PCB180 to its hydroxyl metabolite and the subsequent induction of CYP1A1 seem important for DNA damage induced by PCB180 in vivo. Amplification of the response with estradiol may explain why DNA damage was only seen in female rats.
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