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  • Bergström, Göran, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in the General Population.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - Philadelphia : American Heart Association. - 1524-4539 .- 0009-7322. ; 144:12, s. 916-929
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early detection of coronary atherosclerosis using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in addition to coronary artery calcification (CAC) scoring, may help inform prevention strategies. We used CCTA to determine the prevalence, severity, and characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis and its association with CAC scores in a general population.We recruited 30 154 randomly invited individuals age 50 to 64 years to SCAPIS (the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study). The study includes individuals without known coronary heart disease (ie, no previous myocardial infarctions or cardiac procedures) and with high-quality results from CCTA and CAC imaging performed using dedicated dual-source CT scanners. Noncontrast images were scored for CAC. CCTA images were visually read and scored for coronary atherosclerosis per segment (defined as no atherosclerosis, 1% to 49% stenosis, or ≥50% stenosis). External validity of prevalence estimates was evaluated using inverse probability for participation weighting and Swedish register data.In total, 25 182 individuals without known coronary heart disease were included (50.6% women). Any CCTA-detected atherosclerosis was found in 42.1%; any significant stenosis (≥50%) in 5.2%; left main, proximal left anterior descending artery, or 3-vessel disease in 1.9%; and any noncalcified plaques in 8.3% of this population. Onset of atherosclerosis was delayed on average by 10 years in women. Atherosclerosis was more prevalent in older individuals and predominantly found in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Prevalence of CCTA-detected atherosclerosis increased with increasing CAC scores. Among those with a CAC score >400, all had atherosclerosis and 45.7% had significant stenosis. In those with 0 CAC, 5.5% had atherosclerosis and 0.4% had significant stenosis. In participants with 0 CAC and intermediate 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease according to the pooled cohort equation, 9.2% had CCTA-verified atherosclerosis. Prevalence estimates had excellent external validity and changed marginally when adjusted to the age-matched Swedish background population.Using CCTA in a large, random sample of the general population without established disease, we showed that silent coronary atherosclerosis is common in this population. High CAC scores convey a significant probability of substantial stenosis, and 0 CAC does not exclude atherosclerosis, particularly in those at higher baseline risk.
  • Torén, Kjell, 1952, et al. (författare)
  • Chronic airflow limitation and its relation to respiratory symptoms among ever-smokers and never-smokers: a cross-sectional study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Bmj Open Respiratory Research. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2052-4439. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on the presence of persistent respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation (CAL). CAL is based on the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) after bronchodilation, and FEV1:FVC less than the fifth percentile is often used as a cut-off for CAL. The aim was to investigate if increasing percentiles of FEV1:FVC were associated withany respiratory symptom(cough with phlegm, dyspnoea or wheezing) in a general population sample of never-smokers and ever-smokers. Methods In a cross-sectional study comprising 15 128 adults (50-64 years), 7120 never-smokers and 8008 ever-smokers completed a respiratory questionnaire and performed FEV(1)and FVC after bronchodilation. We calculated theirz-scores for FEV1:FVC and defined the fifth percentile using the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference value, GLI(5)and increasing percentiles up to GLI(25). We analysed the associations between different strata of percentiles and prevalence ofany respiratory symptomusing multivariable logistic regression for estimation of OR. Results Among all subjects, regardless of smoking habits, the odds ofany respiratory symptomwere elevated up to the GLI(15-20)strata. Among never-smokers, the odds ofany respiratory symptomwere elevated at GLI(<5)(OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.43 to 5.23) and at GLI(5-10)(OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.69 to 3.91), but not at higher percentiles. Among ever-smokers, the odds ofany respiratory symptomwere elevated from GLI(<5)(OR 4.64, 95% CI 3.79 to 5.68) up to GLI(>= 25)(OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.75). Conclusions The association between percentages of FEV1:FVC and respiratory symptoms differed depending on smoking history. Our results support a higher percentile cut-off for FEV1:FVC for never-smokers and, in particular, for ever-smokers.
  • Wang, Gang, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of chronic bronchitis and risk factors in young adults : results from BAMSE
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis is associated with substantial morbidity among elderly adults, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in young adults. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and early life risk factors for chronic bronchitis in young adults. METHODS: Questionnaire data and clinical measures from the 24-year follow-up of the Swedish BAMSE cohort were used. We assessed chronic bronchitis (CB) as the combination of cough and mucus production in the morning during winter. Environmental and clinical data from birth and onwards were used for analyses of risk factors. RESULTS: At the 24-year follow-up, 75% (n=3064) participants completed the questionnaire and 2030 performed spirometry. The overall prevalence of CB was 5.5% (n=158) with similar estimates in males and females. Forty-nine percent of CB cases experienced more than 3 self-reported respiratory infections in the last year compared to 18% in non-CB subjects (p<0.001), and 37% of cases were current smokers (versus 19%). Statistically significant lower post-FEV(1)/FVC were observed in CB compared to non-CB subjects (mean z-score -0.06 versus 0.13, p=0.027). Daily smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio, aOR=3.85, p<0.001), air pollution exposure (black carbon during ages 1-4 years old, aOR=1.71 per 1 μg·m(3) increase, p=0.009) and exclusive breast-feeding during four months or more (aOR=0.66, p=0.044) were associated with CB. CONCLUSION: Chronic bronchitis in young adults is associated with recurrent respiratory infections. Besides smoking, our results support role of early life exposures, such as air pollution and exclusive breast-feeding, for respiratory health later in life.
  • Bergström, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Origins and genetic legacy of prehistoric dogs
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science. - 1095-9203 .- 0036-8075. ; 370:6516, s. 557-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dogs were the first domestic animal, but little is known about their population history and to what extent it was linked to humans. We sequenced 27 ancient dog genomes and found that all dogs share a common ancestry distinct from present-day wolves, with limited gene flow from wolves since domestication but substantial dog-to-wolf gene flow. By 11,000 years ago, at least five major ancestry lineages had diversified, demonstrating a deep genetic history of dogs during the Paleolithic. Coanalysis with human genomes reveals aspects of dog population history that mirror humans, including Levant-related ancestry in Africa and early agricultural Europe. Other aspects differ, including the impacts of steppe pastoralist expansions in West and East Eurasia and a near-complete turnover of Neolithic European dog ancestry.
  • Bergström, Göran, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study: objectives and design.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-2796 .- 0954-6820. ; 278:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started.
  • Torén, Kjell, 1952, et al. (författare)
  • The ratio FEV1/FVC and its association to respiratory symptoms-A Swedish general population study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1475-0961 .- 1475-097X. ; 41:2, s. 181-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic airflow limitation (CAL) can be defined as fixed ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) any respiratory symptom. In a cross-sectional general population study, 15,128 adults (50-64 years of age), 7,120 never-smokers and 8,008 ever-smokers completed a respiratory questionnaire and performed FEV1 and FVC after bronchodilation. We calculated different ratios of FEV1/FVC from 0.40 to 1.0 using 0.70 as reference category. We analysed odds ratios (OR) between different ratios and any respiratory symptom using adjusted multivariable logistic regression. Among all subjects, regardless of smoking habits, the lowest odds for any respiratory symptom was at FEV1/FVC = 0.82, OR 0.48 (95% CI 0.41-0.56). Among never-smokers, the lowest odds for any respiratory symptom was at FEV1/FVC = 0.81, OR 0.53 (95% CI 0.41-0.70). Among ever-smokers, the odds for any respiratory symptom was lowest at FEV1/FVC = 0.81, OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.16-1.19), although the rate of inclining in odds was small in the upper part, that is FEV1/FVC = 0.85 showed similar odds, OR 0.45 (95% CI 0.38-0.55). We concluded that the odds for any respiratory symptoms continuously decreased with higher FEV1/FVC ratios and reached a minimum around 0.80-0.85, with similar results among never-smokers. These results indicate that the optimal threshold associated with respiratory symptoms may be higher than 0.70 and this should be further investigated in prospective longitudinal studies.
  • Wang, Gang, et al. (författare)
  • Early-life risk factors for reversible and irreversible airflow limitation in young adults : findings from the BAMSE birth cohort
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 76:5, s. 503-507
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We aimed to determine prevalence and early-life risk factors for reversible and irreversible airflow limitation in young adults from the general population. Among young adults in their 20s, the prevalence was 5.3% for reversible airflow limitation and 2.0% for irreversible airflow limitation. While parental asthma was the only risk factor for development of reversible airflow limitation, the risk factors for development of irreversible airflow limitation were current asthma, childhood respiratory tract infections and asthma, and exposure to air pollution.
  • Gummesson, Anders, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal plasma protein profiling of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: EBioMedicine. - : Elsevier B.V.. - 2352-3964. ; 63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comprehensive proteomics profiling may offer new insights into the dysregulated metabolic milieu of type 2 diabetes, and in the future, serve as a useful tool for personalized medicine. This calls for a better understanding of circulating protein patterns at the early stage of type 2 diabetes as well as the dynamics of protein patterns during changes in metabolic status.To elucidate the systemic alterations in early-stage diabetes and to investigate the effects on the proteome during metabolic improvement, we measured 974 circulating proteins in 52 newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve type 2 diabetes subjects at baseline and after 1 and 3 months of guideline-based diabetes treatment, while comparing their protein profiles to that of 94 subjects without diabetes.Early stage type 2 diabetes was associated with distinct protein patterns, reflecting key metabolic syndrome features including insulin resistance, adiposity, hyperglycemia and liver steatosis. The protein profiles at baseline were attenuated during guideline-based diabetes treatment and several plasma proteins associated with metformin medication independently of metabolic variables, such as circulating EPCAM.The results advance our knowledge about the biochemical manifestations of type 2 diabetes and suggest that comprehensive protein profiling may serve as a useful tool for metabolic phenotyping and for elucidating the biological effects of diabetes treatments.This work was supported by the Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, the Erling Persson Foundation, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and the Swedish state under the agreement between the Swedish government and the county councils (ALF-agreement).
  • Ostgren, C. J., et al. (författare)
  • Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in coronary and carotid arteries: A population-based cohort analysis from the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 2047-4873 .- 2047-4881. ; 28:3, s. 250-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background It is not clear if the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation algorithm is useful for identifying prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in a population of apparently healthy individuals. Our aim was to explore the association between the risk estimates from Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis. Design The design of this study was as a cross-sectional analysis from a population-based study cohort. Methods From the general population, the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study randomly invited individuals aged 50-64 years and enrolled 13,411 participants mean age 57 (standard deviation 4.3) years; 46% males between November 2013-December 2016. Associations between Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk estimates and coronary artery calcification and plaques in the carotid arteries by using imaging data from a computed tomography of the heart and ultrasonography of the carotid arteries were examined. Results Coronary calcification was present in 39.5% and carotid plaque in 56.0%. In men, coronary artery calcium score >0 ranged from 40.7-65.9% and presence of carotid plaques from 54.5% to 72.8% in the age group 50-54 and 60-65 years, respectively. In women, the corresponding difference was from 17.1-38.9% and from 41.0-58.4%. A doubling of Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation was associated with an increased probability to have coronary artery calcium score >0 (odds ratio: 2.18 (95% confidence interval 2.07-2.30)) and to have >1 carotid plaques (1.67 (1.61-1.74)). Conclusion Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk is associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in two major vascular beds in a general population sample without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Thus, the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk chart may be of use for estimating the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.
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