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Sökning: WFRF:(Bergstrom Mats)

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  • Furmark, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebral blood flow changes after treatment of social phobia with the neurokinin-1 antagonist GR205171, citalopram, or placebo.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Biol Psychiatry. - 0006-3223. ; 58:2, s. 132-42
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating that pharmacological blockade of the substance P preferring neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor reduces anxiety. This study compared the effects of an NK1 receptor antagonist, citalopram, and placebo on brain activity and anxiety symptoms in social phobia. METHODS: Thirty-six patients diagnosed with social phobia were treated for 6 weeks with the NK1 antagonist GR205171 (5 mg), citalopram (40 mg), or matching placebo under randomized double-blind conditions. GR205171 was administered for 4 weeks preceded by 2 weeks of placebo. Before and after treatment, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a stressful public speaking task was assessed using oxygen-15 positron emission tomography. Response rate was determined by the Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale. RESULTS: Patients improved to a larger extent with the NK1 antagonist (41.7% responders) and citalopram (50% responders), compared with placebo (8.3% responders). Within- and between-group comparisons showed that symptom improvement was paralleled by a significantly reduced rCBF response to public speaking in the rhinal cortex, amygdala, and parahippocampal-hippocampal regions. The rCBF pattern was corroborated in follow-up analyses of responders and subjects showing large state anxiety reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term administration of GR205171 and citalopram alleviated social anxiety. Neurokinin-1 antagonists may act like serotonin reuptake inhibitors by attenuating neural activity in a medial temporal lobe network.</p>
  • Berggren, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Lake secondary production fueled by rapid transfer of low molecular weight organic carbon from terrestrial sources to aquatic consumers
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ecology Letters. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1461-023X. ; 13:7, s. 870-880
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • P>Carbon of terrestrial origin often makes up a significant share of consumer biomass in unproductive lake ecosystems. However, the mechanisms for terrestrial support of lake secondary production are largely unclear. By using a modelling approach, we show that terrestrial export of dissolved labile low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) compounds supported 80% (34-95%), 54% (19-90%) and 23% (7-45%) of the secondary production by bacteria, protozoa and metazoa, respectively, in a 7-km2 boreal lake (conservative to liberal estimates in brackets). Bacterial growth on LMWC was of similar magnitude as that of primary production (PP), and grazing on bacteria effectively channelled the LMWC carbon to higher trophic levels. We suggest that rapid turnover of forest LMWC pools enables continuous export of fresh photosynthates and other labile metabolites to aquatic systems, and that substantial transfer of LMWC from terrestrial sources to lake consumers can occur within a few days. Sequestration of LMWC of terrestrial origin, thus, helps explain high shares of terrestrial carbon in lake organisms and implies that lake food webs can be closely dependent on recent terrestrial PP.
  • Einarsdottir, S., et al. (författare)
  • Humoral immunity to tetanus, diphtheria and polio in adults after treatment for hematological malignancies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Vaccine. - 0264-410X. ; 38:5, s. 1084-1088
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction After chemotherapy, children with acute lymphocytic leukemia lose immunity and need revaccination against tetanus and diphtheria. However, little is known about immunity in adult patients after treatment for hematological malignancies. In this study, we assessed serology levels against polio, diphtheria and tetanus in adult patients after conventional treatment for leukemia and lymphoma. Patients One hundred and four patients, age 61 (19–86) years, were included at a median of 18 (4–77) months after chemotherapy for acute leukemia (n = 24) or lymphoma (n = 80). Pre-treatment sera were available in 73 cases for a pre-versus post treatment comparison. Healthy, age- and sex matched controls were available for 47 pts. Methods Tetanus antibodies were quantified using ELISA, and antibody levels ≥0.01 IU/mL were considered protective. Diphtheria antibodies were analyzed using neutralization test (n = 60) or by ELISA (n = 44). In both tests values ≥0.01 IU/mL were considered protective. Antibodies against poliovirus serotype 1 and 3 were assessed by a neutralizing test. A microneutralization titer of ≥2 was considered protective. Results Tetanus: There were significantly more non-immune patients after treatment (24%), compared to before (12%), p = 0.02. Post-treatment antibody levels were significantly lower than pre-treatment levels (p = 0.02). Diphtheria: There was a trend, p = 0.06, towards more non-immune patients after treatment (21%) compared to before (27%). Antibody levels post treatment were lower than pre treatment levels (p = 0.03) and lower than controls (p = 0.01). Polio: There was no significant difference in the number of non-immune patients before vs after chemotherapy for either PV1 or PV3. Protective immunity against serotype 1 and 3 was preserved in 90 and 97%, respectively. Conclusions After standard chemotherapy for leukemia and lymphoma a significant proportion of patients had impaired humoral immunity to diphtheria and tetanus. However, polio immunity was well preserved.
  • Ekblom-Bak, E., et al. (författare)
  • SCAPIS Pilot Study: Sitness, Fitness and Fatness-Is Sedentary Time Substitution by Physical Activity Equally Important for Everyone's Markers of Glucose Regulation?
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Activity & Health. - 1543-3080. ; 13:7, s. 697-703
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mainly recommended for glucose control, light physical activity (LIPA) may also have the potential to induce favorable changes. We investigated sedentary time (SED) substitution with equal time in LIPA and MVPA, and the association with markers of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity after stratification by waist circumference, fitness and fasting glucose levels. Methods: A total of 654 men and women, 50 to 64 years, from the SCAPIS pilot study were included. Daily SED, LIPA and MVPA were assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were determined. Results: Substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA was significantly associated with 3.0% lower fasting insulin values and 3.1% lower HOMA-IR values, with even lower levels when substituting SED with MVPA. Participants with lower fitness and participants with high fasting glucose levels benefited significantly more from substituting 30 min of SED with LIPA compared with participants with normal to high fitness levels and participants with normal glucose levels, respectively. Conclusions: LIPA, and not only MVPA, may have beneficial associations with glucose regulation. This is of great clinical and public health importance, not least because it may confer a higher compliance rate to regular PA.
  • Ekblom, O., et al. (författare)
  • Concurrent and predictive validity of physical activity measurement items commonly used in clinical settings- data from SCAPIS pilot study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Bmc Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: As the understanding of how different aspects of the physical activity (PA) pattern relate to health and disease, proper assessment is increasingly important. In clinical care, self-reports are the most commonly used assessment technique. However, systematic comparisons between questions regarding concurrent or criterion validity are rare, as are measures of predictive validity. The aim of the study was to examine the concurrent (using accelerometry as reference) and predictive validity (for metabolic syndrome) of five PA questions. Methods: A sample of 948 middle-aged Swedish men and women reported their PA patterns via five different questions and wore an accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X) for a minimum of 4 days. Concurrent validity was assessed as correlations and ROC-analyses. Predictive validity was assessed using logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. Results: Concurrent validity was low-to-moderate (r < 0.35 and ROC AUC < 0.7) with large misclassifications regarding time spent sitting/sedentary and in moderate-to vigorous PA. The predictive validity of the questions was good, and one question (PHAS) showed an 80 % decreased odds-ratio of having metabolic syndrome, after taking potential confounders into consideration. Discussion: In this mixed sample of adults, both concurrent and predictive validity vaired between items and between measures of the physical activity pattern. The PHAS and WALK items are proposed for assessment of adherence to PA recommendations. Conclusion: Assessing PA patterns using self-report measures results in methodological problems when trying to predict individual risk for the metabolic syndrome, as the concurrent validity generally was low. However, several of the investigated questions may be useful for assessing risk at a group level, showing better predictive validity.
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