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Sökning: WFRF:(Bernstein Inge)

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1.
  • Thompson, B.A., et al. (författare)
  • Application of a 5-tiered scheme for standardized classification of 2,360 unique mismatch repair gene variants in the InSiGHT locus-specific database
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:2, s. 107-115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clinical classification of hereditary sequence variants identified in disease-related genes directly affects clinical management of patients and their relatives. The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) undertook a collaborative effort to develop, test and apply a standardized classification scheme to constitutional variants in the Lynch syndrome-associated genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Unpublished data submission was encouraged to assist in variant classification and was recognized through microattribution. The scheme was refined by multidisciplinary expert committee review of the clinical and functional data available for variants, applied to 2,360 sequence alterations, and disseminated online. Assessment using validated criteria altered classifications for 66% of 12,006 database entries. Clinical recommendations based on transparent evaluation are now possible for 1,370 variants that were not obviously protein truncating from nomenclature. This large-scale endeavor will facilitate the consistent management of families suspected to have Lynch syndrome and demonstrates the value of multidisciplinary collaboration in the curation and classification of variants in public locus-specific databases. © 2014 Nature America, Inc.
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2.
  • Ketabi, Zohreh, et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian cancer linked to lynch syndrome typically presents as early-onset, non-serous epithelial tumors
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - : Academic Press. - 1095-6859. ; 121:3, s. 462-465
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Heredity is a major cause of ovarian cancer and during recent years the contribution from germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations linked to Lynch syndrome has gradually been recognized. Methods. We characterized clinical features, tumor morphology and mismatch repair defects in all ovarian cancers identified in Swedish and Danish Lynch syndrome families. Results. In total, 63 epithelial ovarian cancers developed at mean 48 (range 30-79) years of age with 47% being early stage (FIGO stage I). Histologically, endometrioid (35%) and clear cell (17%) tumors were overrepresented. The underlying MMR gene mutations in these families affected MSH2 in 49%, MSH6 in 33% and MLH1 in 17%. Immunohistochemical loss of the corresponding MMR protein was demonstrated in 33/36 (92%) tumors analyzed. Conclusion. The combined data from our cohorts demonstrate that ovarian cancer associated with Lynch syndrome typically presents at young age as early-stage, non-serous tumors, which implicates that a family history of colorectal and endometrial cancer should be specifically considered in such cases. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Klarskov, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Interobserver variability in the evaluation of mismatch repair protein immunostaining
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Pathology. - : Elsevier. - 1532-8392. ; 41:10, s. 1387-1396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunohistochemical staining for mismatch repair proteins has during recent years been established as a routine analysis in many pathology laboratories with the aim to identify tumors linked to the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Despite widespread application, data on reliability are lacking. We therefore evaluated interobserver variability among 6 pathologists, 3 experienced gastrointestinal pathologists and 3 residents. In total, 225 immunohistochemically stained colorectal cancers were evaluated as having normal, weak, loss of, or nonevaluable mismatch repair protein staining. Full consensus was achieved in 51% of the stainings for MLH1, 61% for PMS2, 83% for MSH2, and 45% for MSH6. Weak stainings were the main cause of reduced consensus, whereas contradictory evaluations with normal as well as loss of staining were reported in 2% to 6% of the tumors. Interobserver variability was considerable, though experienced pathologists and residents reached the same level of consensus. Because results from immunohistochemical mismatch repair protein stainings are used for decisions on mutation analysis and as an aid in the interpretation of gene variants of unknown significance in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, the interobserver variability identified highlights the need for quality assessment programs, including guidelines for classification of different expression patterns. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J, et al. (författare)
  • How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 31:12, s. 1374-1381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access-Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access-Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium.
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6.
  • Dominguez, Mev, et al. (författare)
  • Distinct gene expression signatures in lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type x.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.
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7.
  • Haraldsson, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Differential expression of CK20, β-catenin, and MUC2/5AC/6 in Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X
  • Ingår i: BMC Clinical Pathology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1472-6890. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer comprises Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Differences in genetics, demographics and histopathology have been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is to characterize their immunoprofile of markers other than MMR proteins. Methods: We compared the expression patterns of cytokeratins (CK7 and CK20), mucins (MUC2/5 AC/6), CDX2 and β-catenin in Lynch syndrome and FCCTX. Results: Differences were identified for CK20 and nuclear β-catenin, which were significantly more often expressed in FCCTX than in Lynch syndrome (p < 0.001), whereas MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 were overexpressed in Lynch syndrome tumors compared with FCCTX tumors (p = 0.001, < 0.01, and < 0.001, respectively). We observed no differences in the expression patterns of CK7 and CDX2. Conclusions: In summary, we identified significant differences in the immunoprofiles of colorectal cancers linked to FCCTX and Lynch syndrome with a more sporadic-like profile in the former group and a more distinct profile with frequent MUC6 positivity in the latter group.
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8.
  • Isinger Ekstrand, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Deranged Wnt signaling is frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Familial Cancer. - : Kluwer. - 1389-9600. ; 10, s. 239-243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Wnt signaling pathway is frequently deranged in colorectal cancer and is a key target for future preventive and therapeutic approaches. Colorectal cancers associated with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome are characterized by wide-spread microsatellite instability, but show few gross genomic alterations. We characterized expression of the Wnt signaling pathway markers β-catenin, E-cadherin, TCF-4, and PTEN using immunohistochemical staining in colorectal cancers from individuals with HNPCC. Reduced membranous staining for β-catenin was found in 64% and for E-cadherin in 80% with strong correlation between these markers (P = 0.001). Nuclear β-catenin staining was detected in 19% of the tumors. Overexpression of TCF-4, which is activated by β-catenin, was found in 89% and downregulation of PTEN, which suppresses nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, was present in 54% of the tumors. In summary, altered expression of target molecules in the Wnt signaling pathway was demonstrated in the vast majority of the HNPCC-associated tumors, which support deranged Wnt-signaling as a central tumorigenic mechanism also in MMR defective colorectal cancer.
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9.
  • Kaput, Jim, et al. (författare)
  • Planning the human variome project: the Spain report.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1059-7794. ; 30:4, s. 496-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The remarkable progress in characterizing the human genome sequence, exemplified by the Human Genome Project and the HapMap Consortium, has led to the perception that knowledge and the tools (e.g., microarrays) are sufficient for many if not most biomedical research efforts. A large amount of data from diverse studies proves this perception inaccurate at best, and at worst, an impediment for further efforts to characterize the variation in the human genome. Because variation in genotype and environment are the fundamental basis to understand phenotypic variability and heritability at the population level, identifying the range of human genetic variation is crucial to the development of personalized nutrition and medicine. The Human Variome Project (HVP; http://www.humanvariomeproject.org/) was proposed initially to systematically collect mutations that cause human disease and create a cyber infrastructure to link locus specific databases (LSDB). We report here the discussions and recommendations from the 2008 HVP planning meeting held in San Feliu de Guixols, Spain, in May 2008.
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10.
  • Klarskov, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • Challenges in the Identification of MSH6-Associated Colorectal Cancer: Rectal Location, Less Typical Histology, and a Subset With Retained Mismatch Repair Function.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Surgical Pathology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1532-0979. ; 35:9, s. 1391-1399
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identification of Lynch syndrome tumors is challenging. This relates particularly to MSH6-associated cases, which show reduced penetrance of colorectal cancer and a higher age at diagnosis. We recorded the clinical and morphologic features of 52 MSH6-associated colorectal cancers in comparison with MLH1/MSH2-mutant tumors and sporadic mismatch repair-deficient cancers. In the MSH6 subset, we confirmed a higher age (median, 56 y) at diagnosis and found a significantly larger proportion (25%) of rectal cancers. Presence of dirty necrosis was the sole histologic component that significantly differed between MSH6 and MLH1/MSH2 tumors. Compared with the sporadic mismatch repair-defective cohort, MSH6 cases had a lower prevalence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and Crohn-like reactions. Mismatch repair defects were identified in 92% of MSH6 tumors, with high concordance between microsatellite instability and loss of immunohistochemical MSH6 expression. The remaining 8% showed a mismatch repair-stable phenotype, which suggests that analysis of additional tumors might be considered in families suspected of Lynch syndrome.
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