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  • Schael, S, et al. (författare)
  • Precision electroweak measurements on the Z resonance
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physics Reports. - : Elsevier. - 0370-1573 .- 1873-6270. ; 427:5-6, s. 257-454
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. The data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLID experiment using a polarised beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarised asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, m(Z) and Gamma(Z), and its couplings to fermions, for example the p parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: m(Z) = 91.1875 +/- 0.0021 GeV, Gamma(Z) = 2.4952 +/- 0.0023 GeV, rho(l) = 1.0050 +/- 0.0010, sin(2)theta(eff)(lept) = 0.23153 +/- 0.00016. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be 2.9840 +/- 0.0082, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model (SM). At the Z-pole, electroweak radiative corrections beyond the running of the QED and QCD coupling constants are observed with a significance of five standard deviations, and in agreement with the Standard Model. Of the many Z-pole measurements, the forward-backward asymmetry in b-quark production shows the largest difference with respect to its SM expectation, at the level of 2.8 standard deviations. Through radiative corrections evaluated in the framework of the Standard Model, the Z-pole data are also used to predict the mass of the top quark, m(t) = 173(+10)(+13) GeV, and the mass of the W boson, m(W) = 80.363 +/- 0.032 GeV. These indirect constraints are compared to the direct measurements, providing a stringent test of the SM. Using in addition the direct measurements of m(t) and m(W), the mass of the as yet unobserved SM Higgs boson is predicted with a relative uncertainty of about 50% and found to be less than 285 GeV at 95% confidence level. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Abreu, P., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the gluon fragmentation function and a comparison of the scaling violation in gluon and quark jets
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - : Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 13:4, s. 573-589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fragmentation functions of quarks and gluons are measured in various three-jet topologies in Z decays from the full data set collected with the DELPHI detector at the Z resonance between 1992 and 995. The results at different values of transverse momentum-like scales are compared. A parameterization of the quark and gluon fragmentation functions at a fixed reference scale is given. The quark and gluon fragmentation functions show the predicted pattern of scaling violations. The scaling violation for quark jets as a function of a transverse momentum-like scale is in a good agreement with that observed in lower energy e+e- annihilation experiments. For gluon jets it appears to be significantly stronger. The scale dependences of the gluon and quark fragmentation functions agree with the prediction of the DGLAP evolution equations from which the colour factor ratio CA/CF is measured to be: CA/CF = 2.26 ± 0.09stat. ± 0.06sys. ± 0.12clus.,scale..
  • Reifarth, R., et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. - : Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 1742-6588 .- 1742-6596. ; 665:1
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process beta-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.
  • Grun, E., et al. (författare)
  • The 2016 Feb 19 outburst of comet 67P/CG : an ESA Rosetta multi-instrument study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 462, s. S220-S234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • On 2016 Feb 19, nine Rosetta instruments serendipitously observed an outburst of gas and dust from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Among these instruments were cameras and spectrometers ranging from UV over visible to microwave wavelengths, in situ gas, dust and plasma instruments, and one dust collector. At 09: 40 a dust cloud developed at the edge of an image in the shadowed region of the nucleus. Over the next two hours the instruments recorded a signature of the outburst that significantly exceeded the background. The enhancement ranged from 50 per cent of the neutral gas density at Rosetta to factors > 100 of the brightness of the coma near the nucleus. Dust related phenomena (dust counts or brightness due to illuminated dust) showed the strongest enhancements (factors > 10). However, even the electron density at Rosetta increased by a factor 3 and consequently the spacecraft potential changed from similar to-16 V to -20 V during the outburst. A clear sequence of events was observed at the distance of Rosetta ( 34 km from the nucleus): within 15 min the Star Tracker camera detected fast particles (similar to 25 m s(-1)) while 100 mu m radius particles were detected by the GIADA dust instrument similar to 1 h later at a speed of 6 m s(-1). The slowest were individual mm to cm sized grains observed by the OSIRIS cameras. Although the outburst originated just outside the FOV of the instruments, the source region and the magnitude of the outburst could be determined.
  • Campbell, C., et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analyses of ataluren randomized controlled trials in nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research. - 2042-6305 .- 2042-6313. ; 9:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim:Assess the totality of efficacy evidence for ataluren in patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD).Materials & methods:Data from the two completed randomized controlled trials (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00592553; NCT01826487) of ataluren in nmDMD were combined to examine the intent-to-treat (ITT) populations and two patient subgroups (baseline 6-min walk distance [6MWD] >= 300-<400 or <400 m). Meta-analyses examined 6MWD change from baseline to week 48.Results:Statistically significant differences in 6MWD change with ataluren versus placebo were observed across all three meta-analyses. Least-squares mean difference (95% CI): ITT (n = 342), +17.2 (0.2-34.1) m, p = 0.0473; >= 300-<400 m (n = 143), +43.9 (18.2-69.6) m, p = 0.0008; <400 m (n = 216), +27.7 (6.4-49.0) m, p = 0.0109.Conclusion:These meta-analyses support previous evidence for ataluren in slowing disease progression versus placebo in patients with nmDMD over 48 weeks. Treatment benefit was most evident in patients with a baseline 6MWD >= 300-<400 m (the ambulatory transition phase), thereby informing future trial design.
  • Fulle, M., et al. (författare)
  • Evolution Of The Dust Size Distribution Of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko From 2.2 Au To Perihelion
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 821:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Rosetta probe, orbiting Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, has been detecting individual dust particles of mass larger than 10(-10) kg by means of the GIADA dust collector and the OSIRIS Wide Angle Camera and Narrow Angle Camera since 2014 August and will continue until 2016 September. Detections of single dust particles allow us to estimate the anisotropic dust flux from 67P, infer the dust loss rate and size distribution at the surface of the sunlit nucleus, and see whether the dust size distribution of 67P evolves in time. The velocity of the Rosetta orbiter, relative to 67P, is much lower than the dust velocity measured by GIADA, thus dust counts when GIADA is nadir-pointing will directly provide the dust flux. In OSIRIS observations, the dust flux is derived from the measurement of the dust space density close to the spacecraft. Under the assumption of radial expansion of the dust, observations in the nadir direction provide the distance of the particles by measuring their trail length, with a parallax baseline determined by the motion of the spacecraft. The dust size distribution at sizes > 1 mm observed by OSIRIS is consistent with a differential power index of -4, which was derived from models of 67P's trail. At sizes <1 mm, the size distribution observed by GIADA shows a strong time evolution, with a differential power index drifting from -2 beyond 2 au to -3.7 at perihelion, in agreement with the evolution derived from coma and tail models based on ground-based data. The refractory-to-water mass ratio of the nucleus is close to six during the entire inbound orbit and at perihelion.
  • Del Dotto, V., et al. (författare)
  • SSBP1 mutations cause mtDNA depletion underlying a complex optic atrophy disorder
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - 0021-9738. ; 130:1, s. 108-125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inherited optic neuropathies include complex phenotypes, mostly driven by mitochondrial dysfunction. We report an optic atrophy spectrum disorder, including retinal macular dystrophy and kidney insufficiency leading to transplantation, associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion without accumulation of multiple deletions. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified mutations affecting the mitochondrial single-strand binding protein (SSBP1) in 4 families with dominant and 1 with recessive inheritance. We show that SSBP1 mutations in patient-derived fibroblasts variably affect the amount of SSBP1 protein and alter multimer formation, but not the binding to ssDNA. SSBP1 mutations impaired mtDNA, nucleoids, and 7S-DNA amounts as well as mtDNA replication, affecting replisome machinery. The variable mtDNA depletion in cells was reflected in severity of mitochondrial dysfunction, including respiratory efficiency, OXPHOS subunits, and complex amount and assembly. mtDNA depletion and cytochrome c oxidase-negative cells were found ex vivo in biopsies of affected tissues, such as kidney and skeletal muscle. Reduced efficiency of mtDNA replication was also reproduced in vitro, confirming the pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, ssbp1 suppression in zebrafish induced signs of nephropathy and reduced optic nerve size, the latter phenotype complemented by WT mRNA but not by SSBP1 mutant transcripts. This previously unrecognized disease of mtDNA maintenance implicates SSBP1 mutations as a cause of human pathology.
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