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Sökning: WFRF:(Biague Antonio)

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1.
  • Buggert, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • CD4+ T cells with an activated and exhausted phenotype distinguish immunodeficiency during aviremic HIV-2 infection
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: AIDS. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0269-9370. ; 30:16, s. 2415-2426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:: HIV-2 represents an attenuated form of HIV, where many infected individuals remain “aviremic” without antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, aviremic HIV-2 disease progression exits, and in the current study we therefore aimed to examine if specific pathological characteristics of CD4+ T cells are linked to such outcome. DESIGN:: HIV-seronegative (n=25), HIV-1 (n?=?33), HIV-2 (n?=?39, of whom 26 were aviremic), and HIV-1/2 dually (HIV-D) (n?=?13) infected subjects were enrolled from an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS:: CD4+ T cell differentiation, activation, exhaustion, senescence, and transcription factors were assessed by polychromatic flow cytometry. Multidimensional clustering bioinformatic tools were used to identify CD4+ T cell subpopulations linked to infection type and disease stage. RESULTS:: HIV-2-infected individuals had early- and late-differentiated CD4+ T cell clusters with lower activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and exhaustion (PD-1) than HIV-1 and HIV-D-infected subjects. We also noted that aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals possessed fewer CD4+ T cells with pathological signs compared to other HIV-infected groups. Still, compared to HIV-seronegatives, aviremic HIV-2-infected subjects had T-bet+ CD4+ T cells that showed elevated immune activation/exhaustion, and particularly the frequencies of PD-1+ cells were associated with suboptimal percentage of CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS:: Increased frequencies of CD4+ T cells with an activated/exhausted phenotype correlate with exacerbated immunodeficiency in aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals. Thus, these findings encourage studies on the introduction of ART also to individuals with aviremic HIV-2 infection.
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3.
  • Esbjörnsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Increased survival among HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual-infected individuals compared to HIV-1 single-infected individuals
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: AIDS. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1473-5571. ; 28:7, s. 949-957
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To compare survival times of HIV-1 single and HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual-infected individuals. Design: Prospective open cohort study. Methods: We analysed data from 259 HIV-1-seroincident cases (either HIV-1 single or HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual-infected) from a cohort with long follow-up (similar to 20 years) in order to study the influence of type of infection and infection order on mortality. Sex and age at HIV-1 infection date was controlled for in a Cox proportional-hazards model. Results: Dual-infected individuals had a 42% longer time from HIV-1 infection to death compared with single-infected individuals, adjusting for age asymmetries between groups. Dual-infected individuals with an HIV-2 infection preceding the HIV-1 infection had a more than two-fold lower mortality risk during follow-up than HIV-1 single-infected individuals. Conclusion: Survival time is longer and the risk of progression to death is lower among HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual-infected individuals compared to HIV-1 single-infected individuals. This natural inhibition could have implications for the development of future HIV-1 vaccines and therapeutics.
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4.
  • Esbjörnsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of HIV-1 disease progression by contemporaneous HIV-2 infection.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 367:3, s. 224-232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Progressive immune dysfunction and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) develop in most persons with untreated infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but in only approximately 20 to 30% of persons infected with HIV type 2 (HIV-2); among persons infected with both types, the natural history of disease progression is poorly understood. METHODS: We analyzed data from 223 participants who were infected with HIV-1 after enrollment (with either HIV-1 infection alone or HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection) in a cohort with a long follow-up duration (approximately 20 years), according to whether HIV-2 infection occurred first, the time to the development of AIDS (time to AIDS), CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, and measures of viral evolution. RESULTS: The median time to AIDS was 104 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 75 to 133) in participants with dual infection and 68 months (95% CI, 60 to 76) in participants infected with HIV-1 only (P=0.003). CD4+ T-cell levels were higher and CD8+ T-cell levels increased at a lower rate among participants with dual infection, reflecting slower disease progression. Participants with dual infection with HIV-2 infection preceding HIV-1 infection had the longest time to AIDS and highest levels of CD4+ T-cell counts. HIV-1 genetic diversity was significantly lower in participants with dual infections than in those with HIV-1 infection alone at similar time points after infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that HIV-1 disease progression is inhibited by concomitant HIV-2 infection and that dual infection is associated with slower disease progression. The slower rate of disease progression was most evident in participants with dual infection in whom HIV-2 infection preceded HIV-1 infection. These findings could have implications for the development of HIV-1 vaccines and therapeutics. (Funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency-Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation with Developing Countries and others.).
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5.
  • Karlsson, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-Reactive Antibodies With the Capacity to Mediate HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein-Targeted Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Identified in HIV-2-Infected Individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of infectious diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6613. ; 219:11, s. 1749-1754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Disease progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is delayed by HIV type 2 (HIV-2) in individuals with dual HIV-1/HIV-2 infection. The protective mechanisms, however, are still to be revealed. In the current study we examined type-specific and cross-reactive antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1 and HIV-2 monoinfection or dual infection. Of note, intertype cross-reactive antibodies that mediated HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-targeted ADCC were frequently identified in HIV-2-infected individuals. Furthermore, the magnitude of HIV-1 cross-reactive ADCC activity during HIV-2 infections depended on the HIV-1 Env origin and was associated with the duration of infection. These results suggest that preexisting antibodies against HIV-2, which mediate intertype ADCC, might contribute to control of HIV-1 during dual infection.
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6.
  • Malm, Kerstin, 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • Analytical evaluation of nine serological assays for diagnosis of syphilis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0926-9959 .- 1468-3083. ; 29:12, s. 2369-2376
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The diagnosis of syphilis is most frequently dependent on antibody detection with serological assays. Assays for both treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies are needed to provide a sensitive and specific diagnosis. For decades, a first screening has been done with non-treponemal assays, followed by treponemal. However, in recent years, following laboratory automation, the reverse sequence screening algorithms have been developed, using a treponemal assay as the initial screening test.Objective: To evaluate serological assays for treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies, to use in reverse algorithm screening of syphilis.Material and methods: Six treponemal assays (one IgM-specific assay), two non-treponemal assays and one novel dual point-of-care (POC) assay for serological diagnosis of syphilis were evaluated. Serum samples from Guinea-Bissau and Sweden were examined, as well as two performance panels and samples from blood donors. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each assay, using different assays as gold standard test.Results: The Macro-Vue RPR Card test was the most sensitive non-treponemal test and the TrepSure Anti-Treponema EIA Screen and the SeroDia TP-PA were the most sensitive and specific treponemal assays. Among the automated assays, both the Liaison Treponema Screen and Architect Syphilis TP showed high sensitivity, however, the former had clearly higher specificity.Conclusions: In resourced settings, where the reverse sequence algorithm is preferred for screening, an automated treponemal immunoassay for initial screening subsequently followed by the TrepSure test or TP-PA assay as a second treponemal assay appear highly effective. Finally, a quantitative highly sensitive non-treponemal assay, e.g. the Macro-Vue RPR Card test, could then be used as a supplementary test to evaluate activity of the syphilis infection.
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7.
  • Nowroozalizadeh, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Microbial Translocation Correlates with the Severity of Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6613. ; 201:8, s. 1150-1154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbial translocation has been linked to systemic immune activation during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. Here, we show that an elevated level of microbial translocation, measured as plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration, correlates with AIDS in both individuals infected with HIV type 1 and individuals infected with HIV type 2. LPS concentration also correlates with CD4(+) T cell count and viral load independently of HIV type. Furthermore, elevated plasma LPS concentration was found to be concomitant with defective innate and mitogen responsiveness. We suggest that microbial translocation may contribute to loss of CD4(+) T cells, increase in viral load, and defective immune stimuli responsiveness during both HIV type 1 and HIV type 2 infections.
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8.
  • Nowroozalizadeh, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Reply to Redd et al
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6613 .- 0022-1899. ; 203:5, s. 746-746
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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9.
  • Nowroozalizadeh, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Studies on toll-like receptor stimuli responsiveness in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cytokine. - : Academic Press. - 1096-0023. ; 46:3, s. 325-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: HIV-1 and HIV-2 are two related viruses with distinct clinical outcomes, where HIV-1 is more pathogenic and transmissible than HIV-2. The pathogenesis of both infections is influenced by the dysregulation and deterioration of the adaptive immune system. However, their effects on the responsiveness of innate immunity are less well known. Here, we report on toll-like receptor (TLR) stimuli responsiveness in HIV-1 or HIV-2 infections. Methods: Whole blood from 235 individuals living in Guinea-Bissau who were uninfected, infected with HIV-1, infected with HIV-2, and/or infected with HTLV-1, was stimulated with TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists, R-848 and unmethylated CpG DNA. After TLR7/8 and TLR9 stimuli, the expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-alpha were related to gender, age, infection status, CD4(+) T cell counts. and plasma viral load. Results: Defective TLR9 responsiveness was observed in the advanced disease stage, along with CD4(+) T cell loss in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Moreover, TLR7/8 responsiveness was reduced in HIV-1 infected individuals compared with uninfected controls. Conclusions: Innate immunity responsiveness can be monitored by whole blood stimulation. Both advanced HIVA and HIV-2 infections may cause innate immunity dysregulation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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10.
  • Biague, Antonio Jaime, et al. (författare)
  • High sexual risk taking and diverging trends of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in the military of Guinea Bissau
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. - : Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. ; 5:4, s. 301-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: HIV and other sexually transmitted infections are a growing problem in the military personnel of Africa, and information about this problem in Guinea-Bissau is lacking. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and trends of the HIV epidemics in the military forces of Guinea Bissau and to explore possible risk factors for HIV infection. METHODOLOGY: Repeated cross-sectional surveys of HIV-1 and HIV-2 were conducted between 1992 and 2005, and knowledge, sexual behaviour and risk factors for HIV-1 and HIV-2 in military personnel in Guinea-Bissau were assessed. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+HIV-2 dual reactivity was 1.1%, 8.4% and 0.1% in 1992-95, and in 2005 7.7%, 5.1% and 1.9%, respectively. Both the increase of HIV-1 and the decline of HIV-2 between 1992-95 and 2005 were significant when adjusted for age (p < 0.001 for both changes). Only a minority did not know how HIV transmits, but sexual risk taking was high. Several significant risk factors were found in univariate analyses for HIV-1 and HIV-2, but the only risk factor that remained significant after multivariate regression analysis was previous contact with a prostitute among HIV-1-positive subjects (single and dually reactive) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The increasing trend of HIV-1 and the high risky sexual behavior illustrate the need for improvement in HIV/AIDS prevention efforts among military personnel in Guinea Bissau.
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