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Sökning: WFRF:(Biederman Joseph)

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  • Faraone, Stephen V, et al. (författare)
  • The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: is it an American condition?
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: World Psychiatry. - 1723-8617. ; 2:2, s. 104-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that affects up to 1 in 20 children in the USA. The predominance of American research into this disorder over the past 40 years has led to the impression that ADHD is largely an American disorder and is much less prevalent elsewhere. This impression was reinforced by the perception that ADHD may stem from social and cultural factors that are most common in American society. However, another school of thought suggested that ADHD is a behavioral disorder common to children of many different races and societies worldwide, but that is not recognized by the medical community, perhaps due to confusion regarding its diagnosis and/or misconceptions regarding its adverse impact on children, their families, and society as a whole. In this article we present the available data, with a view to determining the worldwide prevalence of ADHD. A total of 50 studies were identified from a MEDLINE search for the terms ADHD, ADD, HKD, or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and prevalence combined, for the years 1982 to 2001. 20 were studies in US populations and 30 were in non-US populations. Analysis of these studies suggests that the prevalence of ADHD is at least as high in many non-US children as in US children, with the highest prevalence rates being seen when using DSM-IV diagnoses. Recognition that ADHD is not purely an American disorder and that the prevalence of this behavioral disorder in many countries is in the same range as that in the USA will have important implications for the psychiatric care of children.
  • Lee, S. Hong, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 45:9, s. 984-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn's disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Buitelaar, Jan K, et al. (författare)
  • A randomized, double-blind study of continuation treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder after 1 year.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - 0006-3223. ; 61:5, s. 694-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The efficacy of atomoxetine in maintaining symptom response following 1 year of treatment was assessed in children and adolescents (n = 163) with DSM-IV defined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Subjects had previously responded to atomoxetine acutely and had completed 1 year of double-blind atomoxetine treatment. They were then randomly assigned in double-blind fashion to continued atomoxetine or placebo substitution for 6 months. RESULTS: Atomoxetine was superior to placebo in preventing relapse (Wilcoxon test, p = .008) and in maintaining symptom response (ADHD Rating Scale IV score, p < .001). Among subjects assigned to discontinuation, the magnitude of symptom return was generally to a level of severity less than that observed at study entry. CONCLUSIONS: Following 1 year of treatment with atomoxetine, continued treatment over the ensuing 6 months was associated with superior outcomes compared with placebo substitution. However, there was considerable variability between individuals in the magnitude of symptom return after drug discontinuation, suggesting that some subjects treated with atomoxetine for a year with good results may consolidate gains made during drug treatment and could benefit from a medication-free trial to assess the need for ongoing drug treatment.
  • Michelson, David, et al. (författare)
  • Relapse prevention in pediatric patients with ADHD treated with atomoxetine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - 0890-8567. ; 43:7, s. 896-904
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically treated over extended periods; however, few placebo-controlled, long-term studies of efficacy have been reported. METHOD: In a global multicenter study, children and adolescents who responded to an initial 12-week, open-label period of treatment with atomoxetine, a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD, were randomized to continued atomoxetine treatment or placebo for 9 months under double-blind conditions. RESULTS: A total of 416 patients completed acute atomoxetine treatment and were randomized. At end point, atomoxetine was superior to placebo in preventing relapse defined as a return to 90% of baseline symptom severity (proportion relapsing: atomoxetine 65 of 292 [22.3%], placebo 47 of 124 [37.9%], p =.002). The proportion of patients with a 50% worsening in symptoms post-randomization was also lower on atomoxetine (atomoxetine 83 of 292 [28.4%], placebo 59 of 124 [47.6%], p <.001). Compared with patients in the placebo group, atomoxetine-treated patients had superior psychosocial functioning at end point. Discontinuations for adverse events were low in both groups, and tolerability was similar to that observed in acute treatment trials. CONCLUSIONS: In patients who responded favorably to 12 weeks of initial treatment, atomoxetine was superior to placebo in maintaining response for the ensuing 9 months. This result supports the value of maintenance treatment with atomoxetine in patients with ADHD who respond to initial treatment.
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