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Sökning: WFRF:(Bimler Malyon D.)

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  • Cirtwill, Alyssa, et al. (författare)
  • A review of species role concepts in food webs
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Food Webs. - 2352-2496. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many different concepts have been used to describe species' roles in food webs (i.e., the ways in which species participate in their communities as consumers and resources). As each concept focuses on a different aspect of food-web structure, it can be difficult to relate these concepts to each other and to other aspects of ecology. Here we use the Eltonian niche as an overarching framework, within which we summarize several commonly-used role concepts (degree, trophic level, motif roles, and centrality). We focus mainly on the topological versions of these concepts but, where dynamical versions of a role concept exist, we acknowledge these as well. Our aim is to highlight areas of overlap and ambiguity between different role concepts and to describe how these roles can be used to group species according to different strategies (i.e., equivalence and functional roles). The existence of “gray areas” between role concepts make it essential for authors to carefully consider both which role concept(s) are most appropriate for the analyses they wish to conduct and what aspect of species' niches (if any) they wish to address. The ecological meaning of differences between species' roles can change dramatically depending on which role concept(s) are used.
  • Pastore, Abigail I., et al. (författare)
  • The evolution of niche overlap and competitive differences
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Ecology & Evolution. - : NATURE RESEARCH. - 2397-334X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Competition can result in evolutionary changes to coexistence between competitors but there are no theoretical models that predict how the components of coexistence change during this eco-evolutionary process. Here we study the evolution of the coexistence components, niche overlap and competitive differences, in a two-species eco-evolutionary model based on consumer-resource interactions and quantitative genetic inheritance. Species evolve along a one-dimensional trait axis that allows for changes in both niche position and species intrinsic growth rates. There are three main results. First, the breadth of the environment has a strong effect on the dynamics, with broader environments leading to reduced niche overlap and enhanced coexistence. Second, coexistence often involves a reduction in niche overlap while competitive differences stay relatively constant or vice versa; in general changes in competitive differences maintain coexistence only when niche overlap remains constant. Large simultaneous changes in niche overlap and competitive difference often result in one of the species being excluded. Third, provided that the species evolve to a state where they coexist, the final niche overlap and competitive difference values are independent of the systems initial state, although they do depend on the models parameters. The model suggests that evolution is often a destructive force for coexistence due to evolutionary changes in competitive differences, a finding that expands the paradox of diversity maintenance. A two-species eco-evolutionary model based on consumer-resource interactions and quantitative genetic inheritance shows how evolution among competitors changes the components of stable coexistence.
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