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Sökning: WFRF:(Birve Anna)

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1.
  • Chen, Sa, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • <em>In vivo</em> analysis of Suppressor of zeste 12´s different isoforms
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Polycomb Group (PcG) genes are known to encode a large chromatin-associated family of proteins which are involved in genomic regulation of many cellular processes. Su(z)12 is a key component in PcG silencing. It is needed for three levels of methylation of histone 3 lysine 27 <em>in vivo</em> in <em>Drosophila</em>. Here, we report that Su(z)12 may exist in different isoforms and that these isoforms are spatially and temporally regulated. The biological function of the Su(z)12-A and -B isoforms seems to be very different. For instance the transgenic Su(z)12-B and the human homolog SUZ12, but not Su(z)12-A, rescue <em>Su(z)12</em> mutants. Furthermore, transgenic flies over-expressing Su(z)12-B show typical homeotic transformation phenotypes, while over-expression of Su(z)12-A does not. However, the two isoforms appears to be able to substitute for each other in some aspects. During larval and pupal stages, Su(z)12-A seems to play the main role. </p>
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2.
  • Ingre, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • A 50bp deletion in the SOD1 promoter lowers enzyme expression but is not associated with ALS in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. - 2167-8421 .- 2167-9223. ; 17:5-6, s. 452-457
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A 50 base pair (bp) deletion of SOD1 has been suggested to reduce transcription and to be associated with later disease onset in ALS. This study was aimed to reveal if the 50bp deletion influenced SOD1 enzymatic activity, occurrence and phenotype of the disease in a Swedish ALS/control cohort. Blood samples from 512 Swedish ALS patients and 354 Swedish controls without coding SOD1 mutations were analysed for the 50bp deletion allele. The enzymatic activity of SOD1 in erythrocytes was analysed and genotype-phenotype correlations were assessed. Results demonstrated that the genotype frequencies of the 50bp deletion were all found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant differences were found for age of onset, disease duration or site of onset. SOD1 enzymatic activity showed a statistically significant decreasing trend in the control group, in which the allele was associated with a 5% reduction in SOD1 activity. The results suggest that the 50bp deletion has a moderate reducing effect on SOD1 synthesis. No modulating effects, however, were found on ALS onset, phenotype and survival in the Swedish population.</p>
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3.
  • Nordin, Angelica, et al. (författare)
  • Extensive size variability of the GGGGCC expansion in C9orf72 in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues in 18 patients with ALS or FTD
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 24:11, s. 3133-3142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) among Caucasians. However, little is known about the variability of the GGGGCC expansion in different tissues and whether this correlates with the observed phenotype. Here, we used Southern blotting to estimate the size of hexanucleotide expansions in C9orf72 in neural and non-neural tissues from 18 autopsied ALS and FTD patients with repeat expansion in blood. Digitalization of the Southern blot images allowed comparison of repeat number, smear distribution and expansion band intensity between tissues and between patients. We found marked intra-individual variation of repeat number between tissues, whereas there was less variation within each tissue group. In two patients, the size variation between tissues was extreme, with repeat numbers below 100 in all studied non-neural tissues, whereas expansions in neural tissues were 20-40 times greater and in the same size range observed in neural tissues of the other 16 patients. The expansion pattern in different tissues could not distinguish between diagnostic groups and no correlation was found between expansion size in frontal lobe and occurrence of cognitive impairment. In ALS patients, a less number of repeats in the cerebellum and parietal lobe correlated with earlier age of onset and a larger number of repeats in the parietal lobe correlated with a more rapid progression. In 43 other individuals without repeat expansion in blood, we find that repeat sizes up to 15 are stable, as no size variation between blood, brain and spinal cord was found.</p>
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4.
  • Akimoto, Chizuru, et al. (författare)
  • A blinded international study on the reliability of genetic testing for GGGGCC-repeat expansions in C9orf72 reveals marked differences in results among 14 laboratories
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Genetics. - 0022-2593 .- 1468-6244. ; 51:6, s. 419-424
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background The GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most frequent mutation found in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Most of the studies on C9orf72 have relied on repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR) methods for detection of the expansions. To investigate the inherent limitations of this technique, we compared methods and results of 14 laboratories. Methods The 14 laboratories genotyped DNA from 78 individuals (diagnosed with ALS or FTD) in a blinded fashion. Eleven laboratories used a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR, whereas three laboratories used RP-PCR alone; Southern blotting techniques were used as a reference. Results Using PCR-based techniques, 5 of the 14 laboratories got results in full accordance with the Southern blotting results. Only 50 of the 78 DNA samples got the same genotype result in all 14 laboratories. There was a high degree of false positive and false negative results, and at least one sample could not be genotyped at all in 9 of the 14 laboratories. The mean sensitivity of a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR was 95.0% (73.9-100%), and the mean specificity was 98.0% (87.5-100%). Overall, a sensitivity and specificity of more than 95% was observed in only seven laboratories. Conclusions Because of the wide range seen in genotyping results, we recommend using a combination of amplicon-length analysis and RP-PCR as a minimum in a research setting. We propose that Southern blotting techniques should be the gold standard, and be made obligatory in a clinical diagnostic setting.</p>
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5.
  • Akimoto, Chizuru, et al. (författare)
  • No GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 in parkinsonism patients in Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration. - Informa Healthcare. - 2167-8421. ; 14:1, s. 26-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>An intronic GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Some amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients have signs of parkinsonism, and many parkinsonism patients develop dementia. In this study we examined if the hexanucleotide repeat expansion was present in parkinsonism patients, to clarify if there could be a relationship between the repeat expansion and disease. We studied the size of the hexanucleotide repeat expansion in a well defined population-based cohort of 135 Parkinson's disease patients and 39 patients with atypical parkinsonism and compared with 645 Swedish control subjects. We found no correlation between Parkinson's disease or atypical parkinsonism and the size of the GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9ORF72. In conclusion, this GGGGCC-repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is not a cause of parkinsonism in the Swedish population.</p>
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6.
  • Birve, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • A novel SOD1 splice site mutation associated with familial ALS revealed by SOD activity analysis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 19:21, s. 4201-4206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>More than 145 mutations have been found in the gene CuZn-Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The vast majority are easily detected nucleotide mutations in the coding region. In a patient from a Swiss ALS family with half-normal erythrocyte SOD1 activity, exon flanking sequence analysis revealed a novel thymine to guanine mutation 7 bp upstream of exon 4 (c.240-7T&gt;G). The results of splicing algorithm analyses were ambiguous, but five out of seven analysis tools suggested a potential novel splice site that would add six new base pairs to the mRNA. If translated, this mRNA would insert Ser and Ile between Glu78 and Arg79 in the SOD1 protein. In fibroblasts from the patient, the predicted mutant transcript and the mutant protein were both highly expressed, and despite the location of the insertion into the metal ion-binding loop IV, the SOD1 activity appeared high. In erythrocytes, which lack protein synthesis and are old compared with cultured fibroblasts, both SOD1 protein and enzymic activity was 50% of controls. Thus, the usage of the novel splice site is near 100%, and the mutant SOD1 shows the reduced stability typical of ALS-associated mutant SOD1s. The findings suggests that this novel intronic mutation is causing the disease and highlights the importance of wide exon-flanking sequencing and transcript analysis combined with erythrocyte SOD1 activity analysis in comprehensive search for SOD1 mutations in ALS. We find that there are potentially more SOD1 mutations than previously reported.</p>
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7.
  • Birve, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Su(z)12, a novel Drosophila Polycomb group gene that is conserved in vertebrates and plants.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Development. - 0950-1991. ; 128:17, s. 3371-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In both Drosophila and vertebrates, spatially restricted expression of HOX genes is controlled by the Polycomb group (PcG) repressors. Here we characterize a novel Drosophila PcG gene, Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12). Su(z)12 mutants exhibit very strong homeotic transformations and Su(z)12 function is required throughout development to maintain the repressed state of HOX genes. Unlike most other PcG mutations, Su(z)12 mutations are strong suppressors of position-effect variegation (PEV), suggesting that Su(z)12 also functions in heterochromatin-mediated repression. Furthermore, Su(z)12 function is required for germ cell development. The Su(z)12 protein is highly conserved in vertebrates and is related to the Arabidopsis proteins EMF2, FIS2 and VRN2. Notably, EMF2 is a repressor of floral homeotic genes. These results suggest that at least some of the regulatory machinery that controls homeotic gene expression is conserved between animals and plants.</p>
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8.
  • Birve, Anna, 1968- (författare)
  • Suppressor of zeste 12, a Polycomb group gene in Drosophila melanogaster; one piece in the epigenetic puzzle
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In multicellular organisms all cells in one individual have an identical genotype, and yet their bodies consist of many and very different tissues and thus many different cell types. Somehow there must be a difference in how genes are interpreted. So, there must be signals that tell the genes when and where to be active and inactive, respectively. In some instances a specific an expression pattern (active or inactive) is epigenetic; it is established and maintained throughout multiple rounds of cell divisions. In the developing <em>Drosophila</em> embryo, the proper expression pattern of e.g. the homeotic genes <em>Abd-B</em> and <em>Ubx</em> is to be kept active in the posterior part and silenced in the anterior. Properly silenced homeotic genes are crucial for the correct segmentation pattern of the fly and the Polycomb group (Pc-G) proteins are vital for maintaining this type of stable repression.</p><p>As part of this thesis, <em>Suppressor of zeste 12 (Su(z)12)</em> is characterized as a <em>Drosophila</em> Pc-G gene. Mutations in the gene cause widespread misexpression of several homeotic genes in embryos and larvae. Results show that the silencing of the homeotic genes <em>Abd-B</em> and <em>Ubx</em>, probably is mediated via physical binding of SU(Z)12 to Polycomb Response Elements in the BX-C. <em>Su(z)12</em> mutations are strong suppressors of position-effect-variegation and the SU(Z)12 protein binds weakly to the heterochromatic centromeric region. These results indicate that SU(Z)12 has a function in heterochromatin-mediated repression, which is an unusual feature for a Pc-G protein. The structure of the <em>Su(z)12</em> gene was determined and the deduced protein contains a C2-H2 zinc finger domain, several nuclear localization signals, and a region, the VEFS box, with high homology to mammalian and plant homologues. <em>Su(z)12 </em>was originally isolated in a screen for modifiers of the zeste-white interaction and I present results that suggests that this effect is mediated through an interaction between <em>Su(z)12 </em>and <em>zeste</em>. I also show that <em>Su(z)12</em> interact genetically with other Pc-G mutants and that the SU(Z)12 protein binds more than 100 euchromatic bands on polytene chromosomes. I also present results showing that SU(Z)12 is a subunit of two different E(Z)/ESC embryonic silencing complexes, one 1MDa and one 600 kDa complex, where the larger complex also contains PCL and RPD3.</p><p>In conclusion, results presented in this thesis show that the recently identified Pc-G gene, <em>Su(z)12</em>, is of vital importance for correct maintenance of silencing of the developmentally important homeotic genes.</p>
9.
  • Blauw, Hylke M, et al. (författare)
  • A large genome scan for rare CNVs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford Journals. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 19:20, s. 4091-4099
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease selectively affecting motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several common variants which increase disease susceptibility. In contrast, rare copy-number variants (CNVs), which have been associated with several neuropsychiatric traits, have not been studied for ALS in well-powered study populations. To examine the role of rare CNVs in ALS susceptibility, we conducted a CNV association study including over 19,000 individuals. In a genome-wide screen of 1875 cases and 8731 controls, we did not find evidence for a difference in global CNV burden between cases and controls. In our association analyses, we identified two loci that met our criteria for follow-up: the DPP6 locus (OR = 3.59, P = 6.6 × 10(-3)), which has already been implicated in ALS pathogenesis, and the 15q11.2 locus, containing NIPA1 (OR = 12.46, P = 9.3 × 10(-5)), the gene causing hereditary spastic paraparesis type 6 (HSP 6). We tested these loci in a replication cohort of 2559 cases and 5887 controls. Again, results were suggestive of association, but did not meet our criteria for independent replication: DPP6 locus: OR = 1.92, P = 0.097, pooled results: OR = 2.64, P = 1.4 × 10(-3); NIPA1: OR = 3.23, P = 0.041, pooled results: OR = 6.20, P = 2.2 × 10(-5)). Our results highlight DPP6 and NIPA1 as candidates for more in-depth studies. Unlike other complex neurological and psychiatric traits, rare CNVs with high effect size do not play a major role in ALS pathogenesis.</p>
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10.
  • Bogaert, Elke, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in the GluR2 gene are not associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 33:2, s. 418-420
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Excitotoxicity is thought to play a pathogenic role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Excitotoxic motor neuron death is mediated through the Ca(2+)-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type of glutamate receptors and Ca(2+) permeability is determined by the GluR2 subunit. We investigated whether polymorphisms or mutations in the GluR2 gene (GRIA2) predispose patients to ALS. Upon sequencing 24 patients and 24 controls no nonsynonymous coding variants were observed but 24 polymorphisms were identified, 9 of which were novel. In a screening set of 310 Belgian ALS cases and 794 healthy controls and a replication set of 3157 cases and 5397 controls from 6 additional populations no association with susceptibility, age at onset, or disease duration was observed. We conclude that polymorphisms in the GluR2 gene (GRIA2) are not a major contributory factor in the pathogenesis of ALS.</p>
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