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1.
  • Sundström, Johan, Professor, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for subarachnoid haemorrhage : a nationwide cohort of 950 000 adults.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771 .- 1464-3685. ; 48:6, s. 2018-2025
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, with high mortality rate and substantial disability among survivors. Its causes are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate risk factors for SAH using a novel nationwide cohort consortium.METHODS: We obtained individual participant data of 949 683 persons (330 334 women) between 25 and 90 years old, with no history of SAH at baseline, from 21 population-based cohorts. Outcomes were obtained from the Swedish Patient and Causes of Death Registries.RESULTS: During 13 704 959 person-years of follow-up, 2659 cases of first-ever fatal or non-fatal SAH occurred, with an age-standardized incidence rate of 9.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) (7.4-10.6)/100 000 person-years] in men and 13.8 [(11.4-16.2)/100 000 person-years] in women. The incidence rate increased exponentially with higher age. In multivariable-adjusted Poisson models, marked sex interactions for current smoking and body mass index (BMI) were observed. Current smoking conferred a rate ratio (RR) of 2.24 (95% CI 1.95-2.57) in women and 1.62 (1.47-1.79) in men. One standard deviation higher BMI was associated with an RR of 0.86 (0.81-0.92) in women and 1.02 (0.96-1.08) in men. Higher blood pressure and lower education level were also associated with higher risk of SAH.CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SAH is 45% higher in women than in men, with substantial sex differences in risk factor strengths. In particular, a markedly stronger adverse effect of smoking in women may motivate targeted public health initiatives.
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2.
  • Bengts, Sophy, et al. (författare)
  • Altered IL-32 Signaling in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Vascular Research. - : KARGER. - 1018-1172 .- 1423-0135. ; 57:4, s. 236-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction and Objective:Interleukin (IL)-32 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine not previously studied in relation to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression and localization of IL-32 in AAA.Methods:Expression and localization of IL-32 in human aortic tissue was studied with immunohistochemical analysis and Western blot (AAA:n= 5; controls:n= 4). ELISA was used to measure IL-32 in human plasma samples (AAA:n= 140; controls:n= 37) and in media from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 3 healthy donors. IL-32 mRNA in PBMCs, endothelial cells, aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and aortic tissue samples of AAA (n= 16) and control aortas (n= 9) was measured with qPCR.Results:IL-32 was predominantly expressed in SMCs and T-cell-rich areas. Highest mRNA expression was observed in the intima/media layer of the AAA. A weaker protein expression was detected in non-aneurysmal aortas. Expression of IL-32 was confirmed in isolated T cells, macrophages, endothelial cells, and SMCs, where expression was also inducible by cytokines such as interferon-gamma. There was no difference in IL-32 expression in plasma between patients and controls.Conclusion:IL-32 signaling is altered locally in AAA and could potentially play an important role in aneurysm development. Further studies using animal models would be helpful to study its potential role in AAA disease.
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8.
  • Acosta, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Fatal colonic ischaemia: A population-based study.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1502-7708 .- 0036-5521. ; 41:11, s. 1312-1319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. To estimate the incidence of fatal colonic ischaemia (CI) and the cause-specific mortality of CI, and to describe the localization and extension of colonic infarction and quantify the risk factors associated with CI. Material and methods. Between 1970 and 1982 the autopsy rate in Malmo, Sweden, was 87%, creating the possibilities for a population-based study. Out of 23,446 clinical autopsies, 997 cases were coded for intestinal ischaemia in a database. In addition, 7569 forensic autopsy protocols were analysed. In a case-control study nested in the clinical autopsy cohort, four CI-free controls, matched for gender, age at death and year of death, were identified for each fatal CI case in order to evaluate the risk factors. Results. The cause-specific mortality ratio was 1.7/1000 autopsies. The overall incidence of autopsy-verified fatal CI was 1.7/100,000 person years, increasing with age up to 23/100,000 person years in octogenarians. Fatal cardiac failure (odds ratio (OR) 5.2), fatal valvular disease (OR 4.3), previous stroke (OR 2.5) and recent surgery (OR 3.4) were risk factors for fatal CI. Narrowing/occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) at the aortic origin was present in 68% of the patients. The most common segments affected by transmural infarctions were the sigmoid (83%) and the descending (77%) colon. Conclusions. Heart failure, atherosclerotic occlusion/stenoses of the IMA and recent surgery were the main risk factors causing colonic hypoperfusion and infarction. Segments of transmural infarctions were observed within the left colon in 94% of the patients. Awareness of the diagnosis and its associated cardiac comorbidities might help to improve survival.
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9.
  • Acosta, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Modern treatment of acute mesenteric ischaemia.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Surgery. - : Oxford University Press. - 1365-2168 .- 0007-1323. ; 101:1, s. 100-108
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischaemia in the early stages is now possible with modern computed tomography (CT), using intravenous contrast enhancement and imaging in the arterial and/or portal venous phase. The availability of CT around the clock means that more patients with acute mesenteric ischaemia may be treated with urgent intestinal revascularization.
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10.
  • Acosta, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Multicentre prospective study of fascial closure rate after open abdomen with vacuum and mesh-mediated fascial traction.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Surgery. - : Oxford University Press. - 1365-2168 .- 0007-1323. ; 98, s. 735-743
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:: Damage control surgery and temporary open abdomen (OA) have been adopted widely, in both trauma and non-trauma situations. Several techniques for temporary abdominal closure have been developed. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the fascial closure rate in patients after vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction (VAWCM) for long-term OA treatment, and to describe complications. METHODS:: This prospective study included all patients who received VAWCM treatment between 2006 and 2009 at four hospitals. Patients with anticipated OA treatment for fewer than 5 days and those with non-midline incisions were excluded. RESULTS:: Among 151 patients treated with an OA, 111 received VAWCM treatment. Median age was 68 years. Median OA treatment time was 14 days. Main disease aetiologies were vascular (45 patients), visceral surgical disease (57) and trauma (9). The fascial closure rate was 76·6 per cent in intention-to-treat analysis and 89 per cent in per-protocol analysis. Eight patients developed an intestinal fistula, of whom seven had intestinal ischaemia. Intestinal fistula was an independent factor associated with failure of fascial closure (odds ratio (OR) 8·55, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·47 to 49·72; P = 0·017). The in-hospital mortality rate was 29·7 per cent. Age (OR 1·21, 1·02 to 1·43; P = 0·027) and failure of fascial closure (OR 44·50, 1·13 to 1748·52; P = 0·043) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION:: The VAWCM method provided a high fascial closure rate after long-term treatment of OA. Technique-related complications were few. No patient was left with a large planned ventral hernia. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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