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Sökning: WFRF:(Blixt Frank W.)

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1.
  • Steinberg, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Expression of messenger molecules and receptors in rat and human sphenopalatine ganglion indicating therapeutic targets
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Headache and Pain. - : Springer. - 1129-2369 .- 1129-2377. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Migraine and Cluster Headache (CH) are two primary headaches with severe disease burden. The disease expression and the mechanisms involved are poorly known. In some attacks of migraine and in most attacks of CH, there is a release of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) originating from parasympathetic cranial ganglia such as the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). Patients suffering from these diseases are often deprived of effective drugs. The aim of the study was to examine the localization of the botulinum toxin receptor element synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV-2A) and the vesicular docking protein synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) in human and rat SPG. Additionally the expression of the neurotransmitters pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-38), nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), VIP and 5-hydroxttryptamine subtype receptors (5-HT1B,1D,1F) were examined. Methods: SPG from adult male rats and from humans, the later removed at autopsy, were prepared for immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies against neurotransmitters, 5-HT1B,1D,1F receptors, and botulinum toxin receptor elements. Results: We found that the selected neurotransmitters and 5-HT receptors were expressed in rat and human SPG. In addition, we found SV2-A and SNAP25 expression in both rat and human SPG. We report that all three 5-HT receptors studied occur in neurons and satellite glial cells (SGCs) of the SPG. 5-HT1B receptors were in addition found in the walls of intraganglionic blood vessels. Conclusions: Recent focus on the SPG has emphasized the role of parasympathetic mechanisms in the pathophysiology of mainly CH. The development of next generation’s drugs and treatment of cranial parasympathetic symptoms, mediated through the SPG, can be modulated by treatment with BoNT-A and 5-HT receptor agonists.
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2.
  • Blixt, Frank W., et al. (författare)
  • Distribution of CGRP and its receptor components CLR and RAMP1 in the rat retina
  • Ingår i: Experimental Eye Research. - : Elsevier. - 0014-4835. ; 161, s. 124-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 amino acid neuropeptide with several functions including vasodilation, the perception of painful stimuli, and inflammation. The CGRP receptor consists of two main components; calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). While there is a growing recognition that CGRP plays a key role in migraine, the function of CGRP in the retina has not been fully established. This study aims to investigate the distribution of CGRP and its two receptor components in the rat retina, visually by immunohistochemistry and quantitatively using flow cytometry. CGRP immunoreactivity was found in the Müller cells while CLR/RAMP1 was located in the nerve fiber layer. Furthermore, since almost all RAMP1 immunoreactive cells co-express CLR, we propose that RAMP1 expression in the retina reflects functional CGRP receptors.
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3.
  • Blixt, Frank W., et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced endothelin-1 mediated vasoconstriction of the ophthalmic artery may exacerbate retinal damage after transient global cerebral ischemia in rat
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral vasculature is often the target of stroke studies. However, the vasculature supplying the eye might also be affected by ischemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the transient global cerebral ischemia (GCI) enhances vascular effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine/serotonin (5-HT) on the ophthalmic artery in rats, leading to delayed retinal damage. This was preformed using myography on the ophthalmic artery, coupled with immunohistochemistry and electroretinogram (ERG) to assess the ischemic consequences on the retina. Results showed a significant increase of ET-1 mediated vasoconstriction at 48 hours post ischemia. The retina did not exhibit any morphological changes throughout the study. However, we found an increase of GFAP and vimentin expression at 72 hours and 7 days after ischemia, indicating Müller cell mediated gliosis. ERG revealed significantly decreased function at 72 hours, but recovered almost completely after 7 days. In conclusion, we propose that the increased contractile response via ET-1 receptors in the ophthalmic artery after 48 hours may elicit negative retinal consequences due to a second ischemic period. This may exacerbate retinal damage after ischemia as illustrated by the decreased retinal function and Müller cell activation. The ophthalmic artery and ET-1 mediated vasoconstriction may be a valid and novel therapeutic target after longer periods of ischemic insults.
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4.
  • Blixt, Frank W., et al. (författare)
  • MEK/ERK/1/2 sensitive vascular changes coincide with retinal functional deficit, following transient ophthalmic artery occlusion
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Experimental Eye Research. - : Elsevier. - 0014-4835. ; 179, s. 142-149
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Retinal ischemia remains a major cause of blindness in the world with few acute treatments available. Recent emphasis on retinal vasculature and the ophthalmic artery's vascular properties after ischemia has shown an increase in vasoconstrictive functionality, as previously observed in cerebral arteries following stroke. Specifically, endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor-mediated vasoconstriction regulated by the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway. In this study, the ophthalmic artery of rats was occluded for 2 h with the middle cerebral artery occlusion model. MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 was administered at 0, 6, and 24 h following reperfusion and the functional properties of the ophthalmic artery were evaluated at 48 h post reperfusion. Additionally, retinal function was evaluated at day 1, 4, and 7 after reperfusion. Occlusion of the ophthalmic artery led to a significant increase of endothelin-1 mediated vasoconstriction which can be attenuated by U0126 treatment, most evident at higher ET-1 concentrations of 10−7 M (Emax151.0 ± 22.0% of 60 mM K+), vs non-treated ischemic arteries Emax 212.1 ± 14.7% of 60 mM K+). Retinal function also deteriorated following ischemia and was improved with treatment with a-wave amplitudes of 725 ± 36 μV in control, 560 ± 21 μV in non-treated, and 668 ± 73 μV in U0126 treated at 2 log cd*s/m2 luminance in the acute stages (1 days post-ischemia). Full spontaneous retinal recovery was observed at day 7 regardless of treatment. In conclusion, this is the first study to show a beneficial in vivo effect of U0126 on vascular contractility following ischemia in the ophthalmic artery. Coupled with the knowledge obtained from cerebral vasculature, these results point towards a novel therapeutic approach following ischemia-related injuries to the eye.
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5.
  • Christiansen, Anders T., et al. (författare)
  • Neuropeptide Y treatment induces retinal vasoconstriction and causes functional and histological retinal damage in a porcine ischaemia model
  • Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1755-375X. ; 96:8, s. 812-820
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To investigate the effects of intravitreal neuropeptide Y (NPY) treatment following acute retinal ischaemia in an in vivo porcine model. In addition, we evaluated the vasoconstrictive potential of NPY on porcine retinal arteries ex vivo. Methods: Twelve pigs underwent induced retinal ischaemia by elevated intraocular pressure clamping the ocular perfusion pressure at 5 mmHg for 2 hr followed by intravitreal injection of NPY or vehicle. After 4 weeks, retinas were evaluated functionally by standard and global-flash multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) and histologically by thickness of retinal layers and number of ganglion cells. Additionally, the vasoconstrictive effects of NPY and its involved receptors were tested using wire myographs and NPY receptor antagonists on porcine retinal arteries. Results: Intravitreal injection of NPY after induced ischaemia caused a significant reduction in the mean induced component (IC) amplitude ratio (treated/normal eye) compared to vehicle-treated eyes. This reduction was accompanied by histological damage, where NPY treatment reduced the mean thickness of inner retinal layers and number of ganglion cells. In retinal arteries, NPY-induced vasoconstriction to a plateau of approximately 65% of potassium-induced constriction. This effect appeared to be mediated via Y1 and Y2, but not Y5. Conclusion: In seeming contrast to previous in vitro studies, intravitreal NPY treatment caused functional and histological damage compared to vehicle after a retinal ischaemic insult. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that NPY induces Y1- and Y2- but not Y5-mediated vasoconstriction in retinal arteries. This constriction could explain the worsening in vivo effect induced by NPY treatment following an ischaemic insult and suggests that future studies on exploring the neuroprotective effects of NPY might focus on other receptors than Y1 and Y2.
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6.
  • Edvinsson, Jacob C.A., et al. (författare)
  • C-fibers may modulate adjacent Aδ-fibers through axon-axon CGRP signaling at nodes of Ranvier in the trigeminal system
  • Ingår i: The journal of headache and pain. - : Springer. - 1129-2369. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) towards CGRP or the CGRP receptor show good prophylactic antimigraine efficacy. However, their site of action is still elusive. Due to lack of passage of mAbs across the blood-brain barrier the trigeminal system has been suggested a possible site of action because it lacks blood-brain barrier and hence is available to circulating molecules. The trigeminal ganglion (TG) harbors two types of neurons; half of which store CGRP and the rest that express CGRP receptor elements (CLR/RAMP1). METHODS: With specific immunohistochemistry methods, we demonstrated the localization of CGRP, CLR, RAMP1, and their locations related to expression of the paranodal marker contactin-associated protein 1 (CASPR). Furthermore, we studied functional CGRP release separately from the neuron soma and the part with only nerve fibers of the trigeminal ganglion, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Antibodies towards CGRP and CLR/RAMP1 bind to two different populations of neurons in the TG and are found in the C- and the myelinated Aδ-fibers, respectively, within the dura mater and in trigeminal ganglion (TG). CASPR staining revealed paranodal areas of the different myelinated fibers inhabiting the TG and dura mater. Double immunostaining with CASPR and RAMP1 or the functional CGRP receptor antibody (AA58) revealed co-localization of the two peptides in the paranodal region which suggests the presence of the CGRP-receptor. Double immunostaining with CGRP and CASPR revealed that thin C-fibers have CGRP-positive boutons which often localize in close proximity to the nodal areas of the CGRP-receptor positive Aδ-fibers. These boutons are pearl-like synaptic structures, and we show CGRP release from fibers dissociated from their neuronal bodies. In addition, we found that adjacent to the CGRP receptor localization in the node of Ranvier there was PKA immunoreactivity (kinase stimulated by cAMP), providing structural possibility to modify conduction activity within the Aδ-fibers. CONCLUSION: We observed a close relationship between the CGRP containing C-fibers and the Aδ-fibers containing the CGRP-receptor elements, suggesting a point of axon-axon interaction for the released CGRP and a site of action for gepants and the novel mAbs to alleviate migraine.
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7.
  • Feczkó, Tivadar, et al. (författare)
  • Stimulating brain recovery after stroke using theranostic albumin nanocarriers loaded with nerve growth factor in combination therapy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Controlled Release. - : Elsevier. - 0168-3659. ; 293, s. 63-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For many years, delivering drug molecules across the blood brain barrier has been a major challenge. The neuropeptide nerve growth factor is involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation of cholinergic neurons and holds great potential in the treatment of stroke. However, as with many other compounds, the biomolecule is not able to enter the central nervous system. In the present study, nerve growth factor and ultra-small particles of iron oxide were co-encapsulated into a chemically crosslinked albumin nanocarrier matrix which was modified on the surface with apolipoprotein E. These biodegradable nanoparticles with a size of 212 ± 1 nm exhibited monodisperse size distribution and low toxicity. They delivered NGF through an artificial blood brain barrier and were able to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells in vitro. In an animal model of stroke, the infarct size was significantly reduced compared to the vehicle control. The combination therapy of NGF and the small-molecular MEK inhibitor U0126 showed a slight but not significant difference compared to U0126 alone. However, further in vivo evidence suggests that successful delivery of the neuropeptide is possible as well as the synergism between those two treatments.
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8.
  • Haanes, Kristian A., et al. (författare)
  • Exploration of purinergic receptors as potential anti-migraine targets using established pre-clinical migraine models
  • Ingår i: Cephalalgia. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0333-1024. ; 39:11, s. 1421-1434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The current understanding of mechanisms behind migraine pain has been greatly enhanced with the recent therapies targeting calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor. The clinical efficacy of calcitonin gene-related peptide-blocking drugs indicates that, at least in a considerable proportion of patients, calcitonin gene-related peptide is a key molecule in migraine pain. There are several receptors and molecular pathways that can affect the release of and response to calcitonin gene-related peptide. One of these could be purinergic receptors that are involved in nociception, but these are greatly understudied with respect to migraine. Objective: We aimed to explore purinergic receptors as potential anti-migraine targets. Methods: We used the human middle meningeal artery as a proxy for the trigeminal system to screen for possible anti-migraine candidates. The human findings were followed by intravital microscopy and calcitonin gene-related peptide release measurements in rodents. Results: We show that the purinergic P2Y13 receptor fulfills all the features of a potential anti-migraine target. The P2Y13 receptor is expressed in both the human trigeminal ganglion and middle meningeal artery and activation of this receptor causes: a) middle meningeal artery contraction in vitro; b) reduced dural artery dilation following periarterial electrical stimulation in vivo and c) a reduction of CGRP release from both the dura and the trigeminal ganglion in situ. Furthermore, we show that P2X3 receptor activation of the trigeminal ganglion causes calcitonin gene-related peptide release and middle meningeal artery dilation. Conclusion: Both an agonist directed at the P2Y13 receptor and an antagonist of the P2X3 receptor seem to be viable potential anti-migraine therapies.
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9.
  • Matynia, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Peripheral sensory neurons expressing melanopsin respond to light
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Neural Circuits. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1662-5110. ; 10:AUG
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG) contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior.
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10.
  • W Blixt, Frank, et al. (författare)
  • Increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction after organ culture in rat and pig ocular arteries can be suppressed with MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitors
  • Ingår i: Acta Ophthalmologica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1755-3768. ; 96:5, s. 619-625
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Even though retinal vascular changes following ischaemia have been poorly understood, the upregulation of vasoconstrictive endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptors (ETA/ETB) following global cerebral ischaemia has been described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway is involved in the observed upregulation and whether specific MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitors U0126 and trametinib can prevent it.METHODS: The aim was also to localize ETAand ETBreceptors using immunohistochemistry in both fresh rat ophthalmic arteries and after 24-hr organ culture and study the receptors functionally using myography. Pig retinal arteries also underwent 24-hr organ culture to validate similar responses across species and the retinal vasculature.RESULTS: Results showed that following organ culture there is a significant increase in ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction, in particular via the ETBreceptor. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed a clear increase in pERK in the smooth muscle cells of rat ophthalmic artery. U0126 and trametinib were successful in attenuating the functional vasoconstriction in both rat and pig, as well as restoring immunofluorescence of pERK to fresh levels and counteracting ETBexpression in the smooth muscle cells of the rat ophthalmic artery.CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway in responsible for the increase in functional vasoconstriction via ET-1 receptor in rat ophthalmic and pig retinal arteries. Furthermore, this study is the first to suggest a way of inhibiting and preventing such an increase. With these results, we suggest a novel approach in retinal ischaemia therapy.
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