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Sökning: WFRF:(Blixt Martin)

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1.
  • Goel, Suchi, et al. (författare)
  • RIFINs are adhesins implicated in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-170X .- 1078-8956. ; 21:4, s. 314-317
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rosetting is a virulent Plasmodium falciparum phenomenon associated with severe malaria. Here we demonstrate that P. falciparum-encoded repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) are expressed on the surface of infected red blood cells (iRBCs), where they bind to RBCs-preferentially of blood group A-to form large rosettes and mediate microvascular binding of iRBCs. We suggest that RIFINs have a fundamental role in the development of severe malaria and thereby contribute to the varying global distribution of ABO blood groups in the human population.
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  • Holmberg, Rebecka, et al. (författare)
  • Antiviral treatments reduce severity of diabetes in Ljungan virus-infected CD-1 mice and delay onset in diabetes-prone BB rats
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Microbiology and immunology. - 0385-5600 .- 1348-0421. ; 53:10, s. 567-572
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effects of LV in two different species, CD-1 mice, without a genetic disposition for diabetes, and BB rats prone to T1D were examined. Male CD-1 mice that had been exposed to LV in utero developed a type 2-like diabetes with increased blood glucose, insulin levels and epididymal fat at the age of 10-15 weeks. Combination therapy including LV-antiserum and an antiviral drug, Pleconaril, significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose and insulin and the amount of abdominal fat. In BB rats, LV has been found in both prediabetic- and diabetic diabetes-prone rats, as well as in diabetes-resistant rats. To evaluate whether the presence of LV has any influence on the onset of T1D, prediabetic BB rats were treated with an antiserum against LV or a combination of the antiviral drugs Pleconaril and Ribavirin. In the group treated with antiviral drugs, the onset was significantly delayed. These results indicate that the presence of LV can be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes in these animal models.
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  • Niklasson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal viral exposure followed by adult stress produces glucose intolerance in a mouse model
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 49:9, s. 2192-2199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: It has been suggested that the uterine environment may influence metabolic disease occurring later in adult life, and that adult stress may promote disease outcome. Using a mouse model, we tested whether in utero exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) followed by adult exposure to stress produces diabetes. The influence of the timing of viral exposure over the course of pregnancy was also tested. Materials and methods: Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed i.p. to LV on pregnancy days 4, 8, 12 or 17. Adult male mice from these pregnancies were stressed by being kept in shared cages. Stress only, LV exposure in utero only, and no-stress/no virus exposure groups were also followed. Outcome variables included bodyweight, epididymal fat weight, baseline glucose, glucose tolerance tests (60 and 120 min) and serum insulin. Results: We demonstrated that male mice developed a type 2-like diabetes, including obesity, as adults if infected during pregnancy with LV. Diabetes at the age of 11 weeks was more severe in mice whose mothers were infected earlier than in those whose mothers were infected later in pregnancy. Only animals infected in utero and kept under stress developed diabetes; infection or stress alone did not cause disease. Conclusions/interpretation: This work demonstrates that a type 2 diabetes-like disease can be virus-induced in a mouse model. Early in utero viral insults can set the stage for disease occurring during adult life, but the final manifestation of diabetes is dependent on the combination of early viral exposure and stress in adult life.
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5.
  • Blixt, Martin, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Characterization of β-cell function of pancreatic islets isolated from bank voles developing glucose intolerance/diabetes : an animal model showing features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a possible role of the Ljungan virus
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: General and Comparative Endocrinology. - 0016-6480 .- 1095-6840. ; 154:1-3, s. 41-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) kept in captivity develop diabetes mellitus to a significant extent. Also in wild bank voles, elevated blood glucose has been observed. A newly isolated picornavirus named Ljungan virus (LV) has been found in the pancreas of these bank voles. Moreover, LV infection in combination with environmental factors may cause glucose intolerance/diabetes (GINT/D) in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional characteristics of pancreatic islets, isolated from bank voles, bred in the laboratory but considered LV infected. About 20% of all males and females were classified as GINT/D following a glucose tolerance test. Of these animals the majority had become diabetic by 20 weeks of age, with a tendency towards an earlier onset in the males. GINT/D animals had increased serum insulin levels. Islets were tested on the day of isolation (day 0) and after 1 week of culture for their insulin content and their capacity to synthesize (pro)insulin, secrete insulin and metabolize glucose. Functional differences could be observed between normal and GINT/D animals as well as between genders. An elevated basal insulin secretion was observed on day 0 indicating β-cell dysfunction among islets isolated from diabetic males. In vitro culture could reverse some functional changes. The increased serum insulin level and the increased basal islet insulin secretion may suggest that the animals had developed a type 2 diabetes-like condition. It is likely that the putative stress imposed in the laboratory, maybe in combination with LV infection, can lead to an increased functional demand on the β-cells.
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  • Blixt, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Pancreatic islets of bank vole show signs of dysfunction after prolonged exposure to high glucose concentrations in vitro
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Endocrinology. - 0022-0795 .- 1479-6805. ; 206:1, s. 47-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bank voles develop glucose intolerance/diabetes mellitus when kept in captivity. We have characterized beta-cell function of glucose intolerant/diabetic animals, and found that this animal model has features of both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to study the functional alterations of islets isolated from glucose tolerant bank voles after a prolonged exposure to various glucose concentrations in vitro. For this purpose, pancreatic islets from normal (glucose tolerant) male and female bank voles were cultured at different glucose concentrations (5.6, 11.1 (control), or 28 mM) whereupon islet functions were examined. Overall, islet insulin output was lowered at 5.6 mM glucose, and similar to control, or enhanced after culture in 28 mM glucose. High glucose culture led to decreased insulin contents, but there was no change in islet DNA content and in morphological assessments of cell death, with the latter findings suggesting that the so-called glucotoxicity had not evolved. A slight gender difference was observed in that islets isolated from females exhibited a glucose-regulated (pro) insulin biosynthesis rate and insulin gene expression. In conclusion, we have found that islets isolated from female and male bank voles are affected by glucose concentrations in vitro in that some signs of dysfunction were observed upon high glucose exposure. A minor gender difference was observed suggesting that the islets of the females may more readily adapt to the elevated glucose concentration than islets of the male bank voles. It could be that these in vitro gender differences observed may represent a mechanism underlying the gender difference in diabetes development observed among bank voles. Journal of Endocrinology (2010) 206, 47-54
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  • Blixt, Martin, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Suppression of bank vole pancreatic islet function by proinflammatory cytokines
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. - 0303-7207 .- 1872-8057. ; 305:1-2, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bank voles kept in captivity may develop diabetes. We recently characterized beta-cell function of pancreatic islets from normal and glucose intolerant/diabetic bank voles. These animals had features of both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Cytokines may impair β-cell function in both types of diabetes. Presently, we studied how pancreatic islets isolated from normal, i.e. glucose tolerant bank voles are affected by proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Islets were exposed to hIL-1β (25U/ml) alone or in combination with hTNF-α (1000U/ml)+mIFN-γ (1000U/ml) for 48h, whereupon islet functions were assessed. Cytokines markedly reduced insulin gene expression and the (pro)insulin biosynthesis rate, which was accompanied by a profound depletion of the islet insulin content. The cytokines did not affect the culture medium insulin accumulation and the glucose oxidation rate, but caused a modest increase in medium nitrite, an indicator of nitric oxide (NO) generation. Cytokine-induced decrease in islet insulin content was not prevented by the preferential inducible NO synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine. These findings suggest that the reduction in islet insulin content is not attributed to enhanced exocytosis or related to altered glucose metabolism, but is rather due to a decline in insulin production. The suppressive effects of islet functions elicited by cytokines seem to be mediated by an NO-independent mechanism. In relation to previous studies on cytokine effects on islets from various species, the bank vole islets show a pattern which more resembles human islets than rat or murine islets.
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10.
  • Blixt, Martin, 1977- (författare)
  • The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) – a novel animal model for the study of diabetes mellitus
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The bank vole (Microtus arvalis) develops glucose intolerance both when kept in captivity and in the wild state. Glucose intolerant bank voles kept in captivity exhibited polydipsia, polyuria, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, islet autoantibodies and a markedly changed islet structure resembling so–called hydropic degeneration. Islets showing hydropic degeneration have reduced β–cell mass. However, the relative islet size to total pancreas area was not changed. Pancreatic islet isolated from glucose intolerant bank voles had an altered islet function showing signs of being exposed to an increased functional demand on their β–cells. Also, islets from male bank voles seem more affected than the islets from females. Islets isolated from glucose tolerant male bank voles cultured for 5 days at 28 mM glucose did not reveal any change in insulin gene expression or insulin biosynthesis rate. However, islets from female bank voles displayed a glucose concentration dependent response. This suggests that there is gender difference in that, islets of female more easily than islets of males adapt to elevated glucose concentration. Furthermore, islets isolated from glucose tolerant males had reduced insulin gene expression after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines for 48 hrs. This effect seemed to be NO-independent since only a minor elevation of nitrite accumulation in the medium was seen, and the use of iNOS inhibitor could not counteract the cytokine effect. The observed response seen in bank vole islets upon exposure to various glucose concentrations or proinflammatory cytokines is similar to those seen in studies of human islets. The bank vole may therefore represent a novel animal model for the study of diabetes. An unresolved issue is the role of the Ljungan virus which is found in the bank vole colony. Bank voles developing glucose intolerance display features of both human type 1 and type 2 diabetes, where environmental factors seems to play an important role as determinant. Our findings suggest that bank voles bred in the laboratory may develop more of a type 2 diabetes. However, bank voles caught in nature instead may rather develop a type 1 form of the disease.
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