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Sökning: WFRF:(Blondal Thorarinn)

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1.
  • Amundadottir, Laufey T., et al. (författare)
  • A common variant associated with prostate cancer in European and African populations
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - DeCODE Genet, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Univ Iceland, Landspitali Hosp, Dept Pathol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Univ Iceland, Landspitali Hosp, Dept Urol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Univ Michigan, Dept Human Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Urol & Clin Med, Orebro, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Univ Michigan, Dept Urol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. Northwestern Univ, Feinberg Sch Med, Dept Urol, Chicago, IL 60611 USA. Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA. Univ Chicago, Dept Human Genet, Chicago, IL 60637 USA. Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 38:6, s. 652-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the increasing incidence of prostate cancer, identifying common genetic variants that confer risk of the disease is important. Here we report such a variant on chromosome 8q24, a region initially identified through a study of Icelandic families. Allele -8 of the microsatellite DG8S737 was associated with prostate cancer in three case-control series of European ancestry from Iceland, Sweden and the US. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of the allele is 1.62 (P = 2.7 x 10(-11)). About 19% of affected men and 13% of the general population carry at least one copy, yielding a population attributable risk (PAR) of approximately 8%. The association was also replicated in an African American case-control group with a similar OR, in which 41% of affected individuals and 30% of the population are carriers. This leads to a greater estimated PAR (16%) that may contribute to higher incidence of prostate cancer in African American men than in men of European ancestry.
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4.
  • Søkilde, Rolf, et al. (författare)
  • Efficient identification of miRNAs for classification of tumor origin
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics. - : Elsevier Inc.. - 1525-1578. ; 16:1, s. 15-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carcinomas of unknown primary origin constitute 3% to 5% of all newly diagnosed metastatic cancers, with the primary source difficult to classify with current histological methods. Effective cancer treatment depends on early and accurate identification of the tumor; patients with metastases of unknown origin have poor prognosis and short survival. Because miRNA expression is highly tissue specific, the miRNA profile of a metastasis may be used to identify its origin. We therefore evaluated the potential of miRNA profiling to identify the primary tumor of known metastases. Two hundred eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, representing 15 different histologies, were profiled on a locked nucleic acid-enhanced microarray platform, which allows for highly sensitive and specific detection of miRNA. On the basis of these data, we developed and cross-validated a novel classification algorithm, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, which had an overall accuracy of 85% (CI, 79%-89%). When the classifier was applied on an independent test set of 48 metastases, the primary site was correctly identified in 42 cases (88% accuracy; CI, 75%-94%). Our findings suggest that miRNA expression profiling on paraffin tissue can efficiently predict the primary origin of a tumor and may provide pathologists with a molecular diagnostic tool that can improve their capability to correctly identify the origin of hitherto unidentifiable metastatic tumors and, eventually, enable tailored therapy.
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5.
  • Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E, et al. (författare)
  • A variant associated with nicotine dependence, lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 452:7187, s. 9-638
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death, causing about 5 million premature deaths worldwide each year(1,2). Evidence for genetic influence on smoking behaviour and nicotine dependence (ND)(3-8) has prompted a search for susceptibility genes. Furthermore, assessing the impact of sequence variants on smoking-related diseases is important to public health(9,10). Smoking is the major risk factor for lung cancer (LC)(11-14) and is one of the main risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD)(15-17). Here we identify a common variant in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15q24 with an effect on smoking quantity, ND and the risk of two smoking- related diseases in populations of European descent. The variant has an effect on the number of cigarettes smoked per day in our sample of smokers. The same variant was associated with ND in a previous genomewide association study that used low- quantity smokers as controls(18,19), and with a similar approach we observe a highly significant association with ND. A comparison of cases of LC and PAD with population controls each showed that the variant confers risk of LC and PAD. The findings provide a case study of a gene - environment interaction(20), highlighting the role of nicotine addiction in the pathology of other serious diseases.
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