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Sökning: WFRF:(Bodei Lisa)

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1.
  • Alvarez, Mariano J., et al. (författare)
  • A precision oncology approach to the pharmacological targeting of mechanistic dependencies in neuroendocrine tumors
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:7, s. 979-989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We introduce and validate a new precision oncology framework for the systematic prioritization of drugs targeting mechanistic tumor dependencies in individual patients. Compounds are prioritized on the basis of their ability to invert the concerted activity of master regulator proteins that mechanistically regulate tumor cell state, as assessed from systematic drug perturbation assays. We validated the approach on a cohort of 212 gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), a rare malignancy originating in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. The analysis identified several master regulator proteins, including key regulators of neuroendocrine lineage progenitor state and immunoevasion, whose role as critical tumor dependencies was experimentally confirmed. Transcriptome analysis of GEP-NET-derived cells, perturbed with a library of 107 compounds, identified the HDAC class I inhibitor entinostat as a potent inhibitor of master regulator activity for 42% of metastatic GEP-NET patients, abrogating tumor growth in vivo. This approach may thus complement current efforts in precision oncology.
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2.
  • Ambrosini, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Consensus on molecular imaging and theranostics in neuroendocrine neoplasms
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - 0959-8049 .- 1879-0852. ; 146, s. 56-73
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nuclear medicine plays an increasingly important role in the management neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). Somatostatin analogue (SSA)-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) have been used in clinical trials and approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Focus 3 performed a multidisciplinary Delphi process to deliver a balanced perspective on molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy in well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). NETs form in cells that interact with the nervous system or in glands that produce hormones. These cells, called neuroendocrine cells, can be found throughout the body, but NETs are most often found in the abdomen, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. These tumours may also be found in the lungs, pancreas and adrenal glands. In addition to being rare, NETs are also complex and may be difficult to diagnose. Most NETs are non-functioning; however, a minority present with symptoms related to hypersecretion of bioactive compounds. NETs often do not cause symptoms early in the disease process. When diagnosed, substantial number of patients are already found to have metastatic disease. Several societies' guidelines address Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) management; however, many issues are still debated, due to both the difficulty in acquiring strong clinical evidence in a rare and heterogeneous disease and the different availability of diagnostic and therapeutic options across countries. EANM Focus 3 reached consensus on employing 68gallium-labelled somatostatin analogue ([68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA)-based PET/CT with diagnostic CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for unknown primary NET detection, metastatic NET, NET staging/restaging, suspected extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and suspected paraganglioma. Consensus was reached on employing 18fluorine-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET/CT in neuroendocrine carcinoma, G3 NET and in G1-2 NET with mismatched lesions (CT-positive/[68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA-negative). Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) was recommended for second line treatment for gastrointestinal NET with [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA uptake in all lesions, in G1/G2 NET at disease progression, and in a subset of G3 NET provided all lesions are positive at [18F]FDG and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA. PRRT rechallenge may be used for in patients with stable disease for at least 1 year after therapy completion. An international consensus is not only a prelude to a more standardised management across countries but also serves as a guide for the direction to follow when designing new research studies.
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3.
  • Bodei, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • The Status of Neuroendocrine Tumor Imaging : From Darkness to Light?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 101:1, s. 1-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diagnostic imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis, staging, treatment selection and follow-up for neuroendocrine tumors. The available diagnostic strategies are morphologic imaging, including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound techniques, and molecular imaging, including scintigraphy with 111In-pentetreotide and positron emission tomography with 68Ga-DOTA-peptides, 18F-DOPA and 11C-5-HTP. A combination of anatomic and functional techniques is routinely performed to optimize sensitivity and specificity. The introduction of diffusion-weighted MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced techniques represents a promising advance in radiologic imaging, whereas new receptor-binding peptides, including somatostatin agonists and antagonists, represent the recent most favorable innovation in molecular imaging. Future development includes the short-term validation of these techniques, but in extension also a more comprehensive multilevel integration of biologic information pertaining to a specific tumor and patient, possibly encompassing genomic considerations, currently evolving as a new entity denoted ‘precision medicine'. The ideal is a diagnostic sequence that captures the global status of an individual's tumor and encompasses a multidimensional characterization of tumor location, metabolic performance and target identification. To date, advances in imagery have focused on increasing resolution, discrimination and functional characterization. In the future, the fusion of imagery with the parallel analysis of biological and genomic information has the potential to considerably amplify diagnosis.
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4.
  • Capdevila, Jaume, et al. (författare)
  • Unmet Medical Needs in Metastatic Lung and Digestive Neuroendocrine Neoplasms
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 108:1, s. 18-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unmet medical needs are not infrequent in oncology, and these needs are usually of higher magnitude in rare cancers. The field of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has evolved rapidly during the last decade, and, currently, a new WHO classification is being implemented and several treatment options are available in the metastatic setting after the results of prospective phase III clinical trials. However, several questions are still unanswered, and decisions in our daily clinical practice should be made with limited evidence. In the 2016 meeting of the advisory board of the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS), the main unmet medical needs in the metastatic NENs setting were deeply discussed, and several proposals to try to solve them are presented in this article, including biomarkers, imaging, and therapy.
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5.
  • Clift, Ashley Kieran, et al. (författare)
  • Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Small Bowel and Pancreas
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - : S. Karger. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 110:6, s. 444-476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The traditionally promulgated perspectives of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) as rare, indolent tumours are blunt and have been outdated for the last 2 decades. Clear increments in their incidence over the past decades render them increasingly clinically relevant, and at initial diagnosis many present with nodal and/or distant metastases (notably hepatic). The molecular pathogenesis of these tumours is increasingly yet incompletely understood. Those arising from the small bowel (SB) or pancreas typically occur sporadically; the latter may occur within the context of hereditary tumour predisposition syndromes. NENs can also be associated with endocrinopathy of hormonal hypersecretion. Tangible advances in the development of novel biomarkers, functional imaging modalities and therapy are especially applicable to this sub-set of tumours. The management of SB and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET) may be challenging, and often comprises a multidisciplinary approach wherein surgical, medical, interventional radiological and radiotherapeutic modalities are implemented. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of SB and pancreatic NETs. Moreover, we provide an outlook of the future in these tumour types which will include the development of precision oncology frameworks for individualised therapy, multi-analyte predictive biomarkers, artificial intelligence-derived clinical decision support tools and elucidation of the role of the microbiome in NEN development and clinical behaviour.
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6.
  • Giammarile, Francesco, et al. (författare)
  • EANM procedure guideline for the treatment of liver cancer and liver metastases with intra-arterial radioactive compounds
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : Springer. - 1619-7070. ; 38:7, s. 1393-1406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • surgery (i.e. resection or liver transplantation), but only 10-20% of patients are candidates for this. In other patients, a variety of palliative treatments can be given, such as chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation or recentlyPrimary liver cancers (i.e. hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma) are worldwide some of the most frequent cancers, with rapidly fatal liver failure in a large majority of patients. Curative therapy consists of introduced tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e. g. sorafenib. Colorectal cancer is the second most lethal cancer in Europe and liver metastases are prevalent either at diagnosis or in follow-up. These patients are usually treated by a sequence of surgery, chemotherapy and antibody therapy [Okuda et al. (Cancer 56: 918-928, 1985); Schafer and Sorrell (Lancet 353: 1253-1257, 1999); Leong et al. (Arnold, London, 1999)]. Radioembolization is an innovative therapeutic approach defined as the injection of micron-sized embolic particles loaded with a radioisotope by use of percutaneous intra-arterial techniques. Advantages of the use of these intra-arterial radioactive compounds are the ability to deliver high doses of radiation to small target volumes, the relatively low toxicity profile, the possibility to treat the whole liver including microscopic disease and the feasibility of combination with other therapy modalities. Disadvantages are mainly due to radioprotection constraints mainly for I-131-labelled agents, logistics and the possibility of inadvertent delivery or shunting [Novell et al. (Br J Surg 78: 901-906, 1991)]. The Therapy, Oncology and Dosimetry Committees have worked together in order to revise the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines on the use of the radiopharmaceutical I-131-Lipiodol (Lipiocis (R), IBA, Brussels, Belgium) and include the newer medical devices with Y-90-microspheres. Y-90 is either bound to resin (SIR-Spheres (R), Sirtex Medical, Lane Cove, Australia) or embedded in a glass matrix (TheraSphere (R), MDS Nordion, Kanata, ON, Canada). Since Y-90-microspheres are not metabolized, they are not registered as unsealed sources. However, the microspheres are delivered in aqueous solution: radioactive contamination is a concern and microspheres should be handled, like other radiopharmaceuticals, as open sources. The purpose of this guideline is to assist the nuclear medicine physician in treating and managing patients undergoing such treatment. I-131-Lipiodol is a consolidated treatment option and the previous European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines have been revised for its use. The newer Y-90-microsphere therapy is rapidly expanding throughout the nuclear medicine community. To date, published data on microspheres, particularly on dosimetry features and the characterization of the objective response, are still preliminary. Therefore, the aim of this part of the document is to set up a first basic procedure to guide nuclear medicine physicians in treatment with radiolabelled microspheres.
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7.
  • Hicks, Rodney J., et al. (författare)
  • ENETS Consensus Guidelines for the Standards of Care in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms : Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with Radiolabelled Somatostatin Analogues
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - : KARGER. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 105:3, s. 295-309
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of these guidelines is to assist physicians caring for patients with neuroendocrine neoplasia in considering eligibility criteria for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and in defining the minimum requirements for PRRT. It is not these guidelines' aim to give recommendations on the use of specific radiolabelled somatostatin analogues for PRRT as different analogues are being used, and their availability is governed by varying international regulations. However, a recent randomized controlled trial, NETTER-1, has provided evidence that may establish Lu-177-DOTA-octreotate (LutaThera (R)) as the first widely approved agent. It also makes recommendations on what minimal patient, tumour, and treatment outcome characteristics should be reported for PRRT to facilitate robust comparisons between studies.
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8.
  • Jensen, Robert T., et al. (författare)
  • Unmet Needs in Functional and Nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 108:1, s. 26-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) held working sessions composed of members of the advisory board and other neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) experts to attempt to identify unmet needs in NENs in different locations or with advanced/poorly differentiated NENs. This report briefly summarizes the main proposed areas of unmet needs in patients with functional and nonfunctional pancreatic NENs.
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9.
  • Malczewska, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • An Assessment of Circulating Chromogranin A as a Biomarker of Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Neoplasia : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 110:3-4, s. 198-216
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Management of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN; pulmonary carcinoids [PCs], small-cell lung cancer [SCLC], and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma) is hampered by the paucity of biomarkers. Chromogranin A (CgA), the default neuroendocrine tumor biomarker, has undergone wide assessment in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.Objectives: To evaluate CgA in lung NEN, define its clinical utility as a biomarker, assess its diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive efficacy, as well as its accuracy in the identification of disease recurrence.Methods: A systematic review of PubMed was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. No language restrictions were applied. Overall, 33 original scientific papers and 3 case reports, which met inclusion criteria, were included in qualitative analysis, and meta-analysis thereafter. All studies, except 2, were retrospective. Meta-analysis statistical assessment by generic inverse variance methodology.Results: Ten different CgA assay types were reported, without consistency in the upper limit of normal (ULN). For PCs (n = 16 studies; median patient inclusion 21 [range 1-200, total: 591 patients]), the CgA diagnostic sensitivity was 34.5 +/- 2.7% with a specificity of 93.8 +/- 4.7. CgA metrics were not available separately for typical or atypical carcinoids. CgA >100 ng/mL (2.7 x ULN) and >600 ng/mL (ULN unspecified) were anecdotally prognostic for overall survival (n = 2 retrospective studies). No evidence was presented for predicting treatment response or identifying post-surgery residual disease. For SCLC (n = 19 studies; median patient inclusion 23 [range 5-251, total: 1,241 patients]), the mean diagnostic sensitivity was 59.9 +/- 6.8% and specificity 79.4 +/- 3.1. Extensive disease typically exhibited higher CgA levels (diagnostic accuracy: 61 +/- 2.5%). An elevated CgA was prognostic for overall survival (n = 4 retrospective studies). No prospective studies evaluating predictive benefit or prognostic utility were identified.Conclusion: The available data are scarce. An assessment of all published data showed that CgA exhibits major limitations as an effective and accurate biomarker for either PC or SCLC. Its utility especially for localized PC/limited SCLC (when surgery is potentially curative), is limited. The clinical value of CgA remains to be determined. This requires validated, well-constructed, multicenter, prospective, randomized studies. An assessment of all published data indicates that CgA does not exhibit the minimum required metrics to function as a clinically useful biomarker for lung NENs.
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10.
  • Malczewska, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • NETest Liquid Biopsy Is Diagnostic of Lung Neuroendocrine Tumors and Identifies Progressive Disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 108:3, s. 219-231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There are no effective biomarkers for the management of bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BPC). We examined the utility of a neuroendocrine multigene transcript "liquid biopsy" (NETest) in BPC for diagnosis and monitoring of the disease status.Aim: To independently validate the utility of the NETest in diagnosis and management of BPC in a multicenter, multinational, blinded study.Material and Methods: The study cohorts assessed were BPC (n = 99), healthy controls (n = 102), other lung neoplasia (n = 101) including adenocarcinomas (ACC) (n = 41), squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) (n = 37), small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) (n = 16), large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) (n = 7), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 50). BPC were histologically classified as typical (TC) (n = 62) and atypical carcinoids (AC) (n = 37). BPC disease status determination was based on imaging and RECIST 1.1. NETest diagnostic metrics and disease status accuracy were evaluated. The upper limit of normal (NETest) was 20. Twenty matched tissue-blood pairs were also evaluated. Data are means +/- SD.Results: NETest levels were significantly increased in BPC (45 +/- 25) versus controls (9 +/- 8; p < 0.0001). The area under the ROC curve was 0.96 +/- 0.01. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were: 92, 84, and 100%. NETest was also elevated in SCLC (42 +/- 32) and LCNEC (28 +/- 7). NETest accurately distinguished progressive (61 +/- 26) from stable disease (35.5 +/- 18; p < 0.0001). In BPC, NETest levels were elevated in metastatic disease irrespective of histology (AC: p < 0.02; TC: p = 0.0006). In nonendocrine lung cancers, ACC (18 +/- 21) and SCC (12 +/- 11) and benign disease (IPF) (18 +/- 25) levels were significantly lower compared to BPC level (p < 0.001). Significant correlations were evident between paired tumor and blood samples for BPC (R: 0.83, p < 0.0001) and SCLC (R: 0.68) but not for SCC and ACC (R: 0.25-0.31).Conclusions: Elevated - NETest levels are indicative of lung neuroendocrine neoplasia. NETest levels correlate with tumor tissue and imaging and accurately define clinical progression.
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