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  • Bodin Danielsson, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • The relation between office type and workplace conflict : A gender and noise perspective
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Psychology. - : Academic Press. - 0272-4944 .- 1522-9610. ; 42, s. 161-171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This exploratory study aimed to investigate the impact of the office design on workplace conflicts, with a special attention to noise in the office. A gender perspective was applied. The sample consisted of 5229 employees from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health 2010 (SLOSH), working in different office types. In the multivariate analysis office type was used as the explanatory variable with adjustments for age, supervisory position and labour market sector. Analysis stratified for gender was used. Among women a significant impact of office type per se on workplace conflicts was found, but not among men. For women several office types differed significantly from the cell-office with regard to prevalence of conflicts during the past two years, but for men only the combi-office differed from the cell-office. Noise had an impact on workplace conflicts, but is not the only explanatory factor since the effect of office type remained also after adjustment for noise in multivariate analyses. Other environmental factors inherent in the office type might thus explain the occurrence of conflicts.
  • Magnusson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting grey-sided vole occurrence in northern Sweden at multiple spatial scales
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: ; 3:13, s. 4365-4376
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Forestry is continually changing the habitats for many forest-dwelling species around the world. The grey-sided vole (Myodes rufocanus) has declined since the 1970s in forests of northern Sweden. Previous studies suggested that this might partly be caused by reduced focal forest patch size due to clear-cutting. Proximity and access to old pine forest and that microhabitats often contains stones have also been suggested previously but never been evaluated at multiple spatial scales. In a field study in 2010–2011 in northern Sweden, we investigated whether occurrence of grey-sided voles would be higher in (1) large focal patches of >60 years old forest, (2) in patches with high connectivity to sur- rounding patches, and (3) in patches in proximity to stone fields. We trapped animals in forest patches in two study areas (V€asterbotten and Norrbotten). At each trap station, we surveyed structural microhabitat characteristics. Land- scape-scale features were investigated using satellite-based forest data combined with geological maps. Unexpectedly, the vole was almost completely absent in Norrbotten. The trap sites in Norrbotten had a considerably lower amount of stone holes compared with sites with voles in V€asterbotten. We suggest this might help to explain the absence in Norrbotten. In V€asterbotten, the distance from forest patches with voles to stone fields was significantly shorter than from patches without voles. In addition, connectivity to surrounding patches and size of the focal forest patches was indeed related to the occurrence of grey-sided voles, with connectivity being the overall best predictor. Our results support previous findings on the importance of large forest patches, but also highlight the importance of connectivity for occurrence of grey-sided voles. The results further suggest that proximity to stone fields increase habitat quality of the forests for the vole and that the presence of stone fields enhances the voles’ ability to move between nearby forest patches through the matrix
  • Bergström, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive workplace intervention and its outcome with regard to lifestyle, health and sick leave : the AHA study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Work. - 1051-9815 .- 1875-9270. ; 31:2, s. 167-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study is a prospective multicentre cohort study entitled Work and Health in the Processing and Engineering Industries, the AHA Study (AHA is the Swedish abbreviation for the study). Four large workplaces in Sweden participated during the years from 2000 to 2003. The present report has two objectives: (1) to present a comprehensive occupational health intervention programme and (2) to evaluate this programme with a focus on lifestyle (smoking and exercise), health related quality of life (HRQoL) and sick leave. Interventions were provided on an individual and group level, including evidence-based methods for four health/focus areas (individual level) and a group intervention based on a survey-feedback methodology. The analyses in this report were exclusively employed at an organizational level. The proportion of smokers decreased at three companies and the course of the HRQoL was advantageous at two of the companies as compared to a gainfully employed reference group. A significant decrease in sick leave was revealed at one company, whereas a break in an ascending sick-leave trend appeared at a second company as compared to their respective corporate groups. This comprehensive workplace intervention programme appears to have had positive effects on smoking habits, HRQoL and sick leave.
  • Bergström, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work : Design of a cluster randomized controlled trial of a problem-solving based intervention versus care-as-usual conducted at the Occupational Health Services
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are among the leading causes of sick leave in Sweden and other OECD countries. They result in suffering for the individual and considerable financial costs for the employer and for society at large. The occupational health service (OHS) can offer interventions in which both the individual and the work situation are taken into account. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention given at the OHS to employees with CMDs or stress-related symptoms at work. In addition, intervention fidelity and its relation to the outcome will be assessed in a process analysis.Methods: The study is designed as a cluster randomized trial in which the participating OHS consultants are randomized into either delivering the intervention or performing care as usual. Employees with CMDs or stress-related symptoms at work are recruited consecutively by the OHS consultants. The intervention aims to improve the match between the employee and the job situation. Interviews are held individually with the employee and the nearest supervisor, after which a joint meeting with both the employee and the supervisor takes place. A participatory approach is applied by which the supervisor and the employee are guided by the OHS consultant and encouraged to actively take part in problem solving concerning the work situation. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and at six and 12 months. A long-term follow-up at 3 years will also be performed. The primary outcome is registered sickness absence during a 1-year period after study inclusion. Secondary outcomes are mental health and work ability. The intervention's cost effectiveness, compared to treatment as usual, both for society and for the employer will be evaluated. A process evaluation by both the OHS consultants and the employee will be carried out.Discussion: The study includes analyses of the effectiveness of the intervention (clinical and economic) as well as an analysis of its implementation at the participating OHSs. Possible methodological challenges such as selection bias and risk of contamination between OHS consultants delivering the experimental condition and consultants giving usual care are discussed.
  • Blom, Victoria, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic susceptibility to burnout in a Swedish twin cohort
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ; 27:3, s. 225-231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most previous studies of burnout have focused on work environmental stressors, while familial factors so far mainly have been overlooked. The aim of the study was to estimate the relative importance of genetic influences on burnout (measured with Pines Burnout Measure) in a sample of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) Swedish twins. The study sample consisted of 20,286 individuals, born 1959–1986 from the Swedish twin registry who participated in the cross-sectional study of twin adults: genes and environment. Probandwise concordance rates (the risk for one twin to be affected given that his/her twin partner is affected by burnout) and within pair correlations were calculated for MZ and DZ same—and opposite sexed twin pairs. Heritability coefficients i.e. the proportion of the total variance attributable to genetic factors were calculated using standard biometrical model fitting procedures. The results showed that genetic factors explained 33% of the individual differences in burnout symptoms in women and men. Environmental factors explained a substantial part of the variation as well and are thus important to address in rehabilitation and prevention efforts to combat burnout.
  • Blom, Victoria, et al. (författare)
  • The Importance of Genetic and Shared Environmental Factors for the Associations between Job Demands, Control, Support and Burnout
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 8:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Within occupational health research, one of the most influential models is the Job Demands-Control-Support model. Numerous studies have applied the model to different domains, with both physical and psychological health outcomes, such as burnout. The twin design provides a unique and powerful research methodology for examining the effects of environmental risk factors on burnout while taking familial factors (genetic and shared environment) into account. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of familial factors on the associations of burnout with job demands, control and support. A total of 14 516 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry, who were born between 1959 and 1986, and who participated in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) by responding to a web-based questionnaire in 2005, were included in the analyses. Of these, there were 5108 individuals in complete same-sex twin pairs. Co-twin control analyses were performed using linear mixed modeling, comparing between-pairs effects and within-pair effects, stratified also by zygosity and sex. The results indicate that familial factors are of importance in the association between support and burnout in both women and men, but not between job demands and burnout. There are also tendencies towards familial factors being involved in the association between control and burnout in men. These results offer increased understanding of the mechanisms involved in the associations between work stress and burnout.
  • Boström, Petra, 1972, et al. (författare)
  • Child's positive and negative impacts on parents-A person-oriented approach to understanding temperament in preschool children with intellectual disabilities.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities. - 0891-4222 .- 1873-3379. ; 32, s. 1860-1871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite previous efforts to understand temperament in children with intellectual disability (ID), and how child temperament may affect parents, the approach has so far been unidimensional. Child temperament has been considered in relation to diagnosis, with the inherent risk of overlooking individual variation of children’s temperament profiles within diagnostic groups. The aim of the present study was to identify temperamental profiles of children with ID, and investigate how these may affect parents in terms of positive and negative impacts. Method: Parent-rated temperament in children with ID was explored through a personoriented approach (cluster analysis). Children with ID (N = 49) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 82) aged between 4 and 6 years were clustered separately. Results: Variation in temperament profiles was more prominent among children with ID than in TD children. Out of the three clusters found in the ID group, the disruptive, and passive/withdrawn clusters were distinctly different from clusters found in the TD group in terms of temperament, while the cluster active and outgoing was similar in shape and level of temperament ratings of TD children. Children within the disruptive cluster were described to have more negative and less positive impacts on mothers compared to children within the other clusters in the ID group. Conclusions: Mothers who describe their children as having disruptive temperament may be at particular risk for experiencing higher parenting stress as they report that the child has higher negative and lower positive impacts than other parents describe. The absence of a relationship between child temperament profile and positive or negative impact on fathers may indicate that fathers are less affected by child temperament. However, this relationship needs to be further explored.
  • Svedberg, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and Environmental Influences on Performance-based Self-esteem in a Population-based Cohort of Swedish Twins
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Self and Identity. - : Routledge. - 1529-8868 .- 1529-8876. ; 13:2, s. 243-256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Contingent self-esteem has regularly been associated with socialization experiences. In the present study, genetic and environmental influences on a contingent self-esteem construct were investigated among women and men in different age groups. The study sample consisted of 21,703 same and opposite sex Swedish twins, aged 20 to 46 years. Contingent self-esteem was measured on a scale for performance-based self-esteem. Sex and age-group effects were assessed using biometrical model fitting procedures. Individual differences in performance-based self-esteem were best explained by additive genetic and non-shared environmental factors for both female and male twins, with similar heritability estimates. No age-group effects were found. However, partially different genes seem to influence performance-based self-esteem among women and men.
  • Svedberg, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic and environmental influences on the association between performance-based self-esteem and exhaustion : A study of the self-worth notion of burnout
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 57:5, s. 419-426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the self-worth model, burnout is considered to be a syndrome of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) and experiences of exhaustion. Studies have shown that PBSE and burnout indices such as Pines' Burnout Measure (BM) are associated. Whether these variables have overlapping etiologies has however not been studied before. Genetic and environmental components of covariation between PBSE and exhaustion measured with Pines' BM were examined in a bivariate Cholesky model using data from 14,875 monozygotic and dizygotic Swedish twins. Fifty-two per cent of the phenotypic correlation (r = 0.41) between PBSE and Pines' BM was explained by genetics and 48% by environmental factors. The findings of the present study strengthen the assumption that PBSE should be considered in the burnout process as proposed by the self-worth conception of burnout. The present results extend our understanding of the link between this contingent self-esteem construct and exhaustion and provide additional information about the underlying mechanisms in terms of genetics and environment. This finding corroborates the assumed syndrome view on burnout, while it also suggests an altered view of how the syndrome emerges and how it can be alleviated.
  • Ahlsson, Anders J., et al. (författare)
  • Postoperative atrial fibrillation is not correlated to C-reactive protein
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Annals of Thoracic Surgery. - 0003-4975 .- 1552-6259. ; 83:4, s. 1332-1337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The peak incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs around the second postoperative day, a time at which serum inflammatory markers are elevated. The aim of this study was to investigate differences between patients with and without postoperative AF with special regard to C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels. METHODS: The study cohort included all heart surgery patients who had sinus rhythm preoperatively, survived postoperative day 3, and were operated on between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2005 (n = 524). Any episode of AF during the first 7 postoperative days defined the patient as belonging to the postoperative AF group. Creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) was measured at postoperative day 1, and CRP was measured preoperatively and at postoperative day 3. Risk factors for postoperative AF were determined using bivariate and multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 524 patients, 182 had at least one episode of AF (34.7%). Preoperative and postoperative CRP concentrations did not differ between the groups (postoperative CRP 175.4 +/- 64.4 versus 175.3 +/- 60.1 mg/L respectively, p = 0.99). Atrial fibrillation patients were significantly older (p < 0.001) and had higher CK-MB levels (33.6 +/- 53.1 microg/L versus 22.5 +/- 26.7 microg/L, respectively, p = 0.009). The odds ratio for postoperative AF with postoperative CK-MB greater than 70 microg/L was 3.5 (confidence interval: 1.4 to 8.6). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative AF has no correlation to the inflammatory marker CRP in heart surgery patients. Ischemic myocardial injury might predispose for postoperative AF.
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