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Sökning: WFRF:(Bohman H)

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  • Alaie, Iman, et al. (författare)
  • Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study (ULADS)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 9:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To present the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, initiated in Uppsala, Sweden, in the early 1990s. The initial aim of this epidemiological investigation was to study the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of adolescent depression, and has subsequently expanded to include a broad range of social, economic and health-related long-term outcomes and cost-of-illness analyses.Participants: The source population was first-year students (aged 16-17) in upper-secondary schools in Uppsala during 1991-1992, of which 2300 (93%) were screened for depression. Adolescents with positive screening and sex/age-matched peers were invited to a comprehensive assessment. A total of 631 adolescents (78% females) completed this assessment, and 409 subsequently completed a 15year follow-up assessment. At both occasions, extensive information was collected on mental disorders, personality and psychosocial situation. Detailed social, economic and health-related data from 1993 onwards have recently been obtained from the Swedish national registries for 576 of the original participants and an age-matched reference population (N=200 000).Findings to date: The adolescent lifetime prevalence of a major depressive episode was estimated to be 11.4%. Recurrence in young adulthood was reported by the majority, with a particularly poor prognosis for those with a persistent depressive disorder or multiple somatic symptoms. Adolescent depression was also associated with an increased risk of other adversities in adulthood, including additional mental health conditions, low educational attainment and problems related to intimate relationships.Future plans: Longitudinal studies of adolescent depression are rare and must be responsibly managed and utilised. We therefore intend to follow the cohort continuously by means of registries. Currently, the participants are approaching mid-adulthood. At this stage, we are focusing on the overall long-term burden of adolescent depression. For this purpose, the research group has incorporated expertise in health economics. We would also welcome extended collaboration with researchers managing similar datasets.
  • Bohman, B, et al. (författare)
  • Structure-activity relationships of phenylpropanoids as antifeedants for the pine weevil Hylobius abietis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Ecology. - 0098-0331 .- 1573-1561. ; 34:3, s. 339-352
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ethyl cinnamate has been isolated from the bark of Pinus contorta in the search for antifeedants for the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis. Based on this lead compound, a number of structurally related compounds were synthesized and tested. The usability of the Topliss scheme, a flow diagram previously used in numerous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, was evaluated in an attempt to find the most potent antifeedants. The scheme was initially followed stepwise; subsequently, all compounds found in the scheme were compared. In total, 51 phenylpropanoids were tested and analyzed for SARs by using arguments from the field of medicinal chemistry (rational drug design). Individual Hansch parameters based on hydrophobicity, steric, and electronic properties were examined. The effects of position and numbers of substituents on the aromatic ring, the effects of conjugation in the molecules, and the effects of the properties of the parent alcohol part of the esters were also evaluated. It proved difficult to find strong SARs derived from single physicochemical descriptors, but our study led to numerous new, potent, phenylpropanoid antifeedants for the pine weevil. Among the most potent were methyl 3-phenylpropanoates monosubstituted with chloro, fluoro, or methyl groups and the 3,4-dichlorinated methyl 3-phenylpropanoate.
  • Alaie, Iman, et al. (författare)
  • Adolescent depression and adult labor market marginalization : a longitudinal cohort study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - : Springer. - 1018-8827 .- 1435-165X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adolescent depression is linked to adult ill-health and functional impairment, but recent research suggests that individual/contextual factors might account for this association. This study aimed to test whether the clinical heterogeneity of adolescent depression is related to marginalization from the labor market across early to middle adulthood. Data were drawn from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study, a community-based cohort initially assessed with structured clinical interviews at age 16-17. The cohort (n = 321 depressed; n = 218 nondepressed) was followed up after 2+ decades through linkage to nationwide population-based registries. Outcomes included consecutive annual data on unemployment, work disability, social welfare recipiency, and a composite marginalization measure, spanning from age 21 to 40. Longitudinal associations were examined using logistic regression analysis in a generalized estimating equations modeling framework. Subsequent depressive episodes and educational attainment in early adulthood were explored as potential pathways. The results showed that adolescent depression was associated with adult marginalization outcomes, but the strength of association varied across depressed subgroups. Adolescents with persistent depressive disorder had higher odds of all outcomes, including the composite marginalization measure (adjusted OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-2.7, p < 0.001), and this was partially (31%) mediated by subsequent depressive episodes in early adulthood. Exploratory moderation analysis revealed that entry into tertiary education mitigated the association with later marginalization, but only for adolescents with episodic major depression. In conclusion, the risk for future labor market marginalization is elevated among depressed adolescents, particularly those presenting with persistent depressive disorder. Targeted interventions seem crucial to mitigate the long-lasting impact of early-onset depression.
  • Alaie, Iman, et al. (författare)
  • Adolescent depression, early psychiatric comorbidities, and adulthood welfare burden : a 25-year longitudinal cohort study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. - : Springer. - 0933-7954 .- 1433-9285.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Depression at all ages is recognized as a global public health concern, but less is known about the welfare burden following early-life depression. This study aimed to (1) estimate the magnitude of associations between depression in adolescence and social transfer payments in adulthood; and (2) address the impact of major comorbid psychopathology on these associations.METHODS: This is a longitudinal cohort study of 539 participants assessed at age 16-17 using structured diagnostic interviews. An ongoing 25-year follow-up linked the cohort (n = 321 depressed; n = 218 nondepressed) to nationwide population-based registries. Outcomes included consecutive annual data on social transfer payments due to unemployment, work disability, and public assistance, spanning from age 18 to 40. Parameter estimations used the generalized estimating equations approach.RESULTS: Adolescent depression was associated with all forms of social transfer payments. The estimated overall payment per person and year was 938 USD (95% CI 551-1326) over and above the amount received by nondepressed controls. Persistent depressive disorder was associated with higher recipiency across all outcomes, whereas the pattern of findings was less clear for subthreshold and episodic major depression. Moreover, depressed adolescents presenting with comorbid anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders evidenced particularly high recipiency, exceeding the nondepressed controls with an estimated 1753 USD (95% CI 887-2620).CONCLUSION: Adolescent depression is associated with considerable public expenditures across early-to-middle adulthood, especially for those exposed to chronic/persistent depression and psychiatric comorbidities. This finding suggests that the clinical heterogeneity of early-life depression needs to be considered from a longer-term societal perspective.
  • Alaie, Iman, et al. (författare)
  • Parent-youth conflict as a predictor of depression in adulthood : a 15-year follow-up of a community-based cohort
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. - 1018-8827 .- 1435-165X. ; 29:4, s. 527-536
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experiencing conflictual relations with one's parents while growing up has been linked to onset, recurrence, and worse treatment outcome of adolescent depression. While this suggests that significant problems in the parent-youth relationship make depressive disorders more relentless, it is not clear whether this effect lasts into adulthood. Our aim was to examine if major and minor conflict with parents while growing up predicts depression in adulthood in youth with and without a history of depression. We utilized data from the Uppsala Longitudinal Adolescent Depression Study. This community-based cohort was assessed with structured diagnostic interviews both at age 16-17 and at follow-up 15 years later. The analyses included 382 individuals (227 with a history of child or adolescent depression; 155 peers without such a history). Binary logistic regression was used, adjusting for sex, disruptive behavior disorders, and additional family-related adversities. Among individuals with adolescent depression, major conflict with parents was strongly associated with adult depression (adjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.07-4.87). While major conflict with parents was rare among non-depressed controls, a non-significant association of similar magnitude was still observed. Minor conflict, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with adult depression. Overall, conflict with parents did not predict adult anxiety disorders, substance use, suicidal behavior, somatoform disorders, or psychotic disorders. In conclusion, major parent-youth conflict during upbringing seems to be linked with an increased risk of depression in adulthood. These findings underscore the need to consider contextual/familial factors in the prevention and clinical management of early-life depression.
  • Alm, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Poor Family Relationships in Adolescence and the Risk of Premature Death : Findings from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - Stockholm : MDPI. - 1661-7827 .- 1660-4601. ; 16:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Poor family relationships during childhood have been shown to have long-term negative effects on an offspring's health. However, few studies have followed the offspring to retirement age, and relatedly, knowledge about the link between poor family relationships and premature death is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relationships in adolescence and the risk of premature death, even when considering other adverse childhood conditions. Prospective data from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were used, with 2636 individuals born in 1953 who were followed up until age 65. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants' mothers in 1968. Information on mortality was retrieved from administrative register data from 1969-2018. Cox proportional hazards regressions showed that poor family relationships in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of premature death, even when adjusting for childhood conditions in terms of household social class, household economic poverty, contact with the child services, parental alcohol abuse, and parental mental illness (Hazard Ratio (HR), 2.08, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.40-3.09). The findings show that poor family relationships in adolescence can have severe and long-lasting health consequences, highlighting the importance of early interventions.
  • Alm, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Poor family relationships in adolescence as a risk factor of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course : A prospective cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 48:7, s. 726-732
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Previous research has shown that poor family relations in childhood are associated with adverse mental health in adulthood. Yet, few studies have followed the offspring until late adulthood, and very few have had access to register-based data on hospitalisation due to psychiatric illness. The aim of this study was to examine the association between poor family relations in adolescence and the likelihood of in-patient psychiatric care across the life course up until age 55. Methods: Data were derived from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study, with information on 2638 individuals born in 1953. Information on family relations was based on interviews with the participants' mothers in 1968. Information on in-patient psychiatric treatment was derived from administrative registers from 1969 to 2008. Binary logistic regression was used. Results: Poor family relations in adolescence were associated with an increased risk of later in-patient treatment for a psychiatric diagnosis, even when adjusting for other adverse conditions in childhood. Further analyses showed that poor family relations in adolescence were a statistically significant predictor of in-patient psychiatric care up until age 36-45, but that the strength of the association attenuated over time. Conclusions: Poor family relationships during upbringing can have serious negative mental-health consequences that persist into mid-adulthood. However, the effect of poor family relations seems to abate with age. The findings point to the importance of effective interventions in families experiencing poor relationships.
  • Bohman, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Novel Evidence Concerning Lacrimal Sac Movement Using Ultra-High-Frequency Ultrasound Examinations of Lacrimal Drainage Systems
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1537-2677.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Current hypothesis regarding the mechanism of active tear drainage is based on studies performed ex vivo or under nonphysiological conditions. Novel ultra-high-frequency ultrasound has the advantage of generating images with superior resolution, enabling measurements of low flow in small vessels, and the tracking of tissue motion in real time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lacrimal drainage system and active drainage using this modality.METHODS: The upper lacrimal drainage system was investigated with 40-70 MHz ultrasound in 22 eyes in 13 patients. Irrigation confirmed a lacrimal obstruction in 10 eyes. Motion tracking was used to map movement of the lateral lacrimal sac wall and to measure flow when possible.RESULTS: The anatomy of the upper lacrimal drainage system was mapped in vivo, including the proximal canaliculi, which have not previously been imaged. The lacrimal sac lumen is slit shaped in its resting state but is distended when irrigated or if a nasolacrimal duct obstruction is present. Thus, the healthy lacrimal sac is not a cavity, and the medial retinaculum does not act against a stretched structure. Motion tracking visualized the "lacrimal pump," showing that the direction of motion of the lateral lacrimal sac wall is mainly in the sagittal plane during blinking.CONCLUSIONS: Ultra-high-frequency ultrasound allows detailed physiological monitoring of the upper lacrimal drainage system in vivo. Our findings suggest that current theories of active tear drainage need to be reappraised.
  • Bohman, Hannes, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Clozapine protects adult neural stem cells from ketamine-induced cell death in correlation with decreased apoptosis and autophagy
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Portland press. - Stockholm. ; 40:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adult neurogenesis, the production of newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) has been suggested to be decreased in patients with schizophrenia. A similar finding was observed in an animal model of schizophrenia, as indicated by decreased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labelling cells in response to a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. The antipsychotic drug clozapine was shown to counteract the observed decrease in BrdU-labelled cells in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, phenotypic determination by immunohistochemistry analysis could not reveal whether BrdU-positive cells were indeed NSCs. Using a previously established cell model for analysing NSC protection in vitro, we investigated a protective effect of clozapine on NSCs. Primary NSCs were isolated from the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ), we show that clozapine had a NSC protective activity alone, as evident by employing an ATP cell viability assay. In contrast, haloperidol did not show any NSC protective properties. Subsequently, cells were exposed to the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist ketamine. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, had a NSC protective/anti-apoptotic activity against ketamine-induced cytotoxicity. The observed NSC protective activity of clozapine was associated with increased expression of the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2, decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic cleaved form of caspase-3 and associated with decreased expression of the autophagosome marker 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II). Collectively, our findings suggest that clozapine may have a protective/anti-apoptotic effect on NSCs, supporting previous in vivo observations, indicating a neurogenesis-promoting activity for clozapine. If the data are further confirmed in vivo, the results may encourage an expanded use of clozapine to restore impaired neurogenesis in schizophrenia.
  • Bohman, Hannes, et al. (författare)
  • Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood : a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - 1471-244X .- 1471-244X. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundEarlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression.MethodsA community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991–93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19–31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression.ResultsOur analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found.ConclusionsParental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence.
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