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  • Chinali, M., et al. (författare)
  • Mitral E wave deceleration time to peak E velocity ratio and cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients during antihypertensive treatment (from the LIFE echo-substudy)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The American Journal of Cardiology. - 1879-1913. ; 104:8, s. 1098-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The early mitral flow deceleration time (DTE) is a prognostically validated marker of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. It has been reported that the DTE is influenced by the loading conditions, which can vary during antihypertensive treatment. We hypothesized that normalization of the DTE for mitral peak E-velocity (mitral deceleration index [MDI]) might better predict incident cardiovascular (CV) events in hypertensive patients during treatment compared to DTE alone or other traditional indexes of diastolic function, such as the mitral E/A ratio. We evaluated 770 hypertensive patients with electrocardiogram findings of left ventricular hypertrophy (age 66 +/- 7 years; 42% women) enrolled in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiographic substudy. Echocardiographic examinations were performed annually for 5 years during intensive antihypertensive treatment. We examined the utility of the MDI at baseline and as a time-varying predictor of incident CV events. Of the 770 patients, 70 (9%) had CV events. The baseline MDI was positively associated with age and relative wall thickness and negatively associated with gender and heart rate (all p <0.01). Unadjusted Cox regression analysis showed a positive association between the baseline MDI and CV events (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.37, p = 0.002). In the time-varied Cox models, a greater in-treatment MDI was associated with a greater rate of CV events (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.93, p = 0.022), independently of the covariates. No significant association was found for in-treatment DTE or any of the prognostically validated indexes of diastolic function. In conclusion, in our population of patients with treated hypertension with electrocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy, the MDI independently predicted future CV events. Normalization of DTE for E velocity might be preferred to other traditional diastolic function indexes in evaluating diastolic function during antihypertensive treatment.
  • Devereux, R. B., et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic significance of left ventricular mass change during treatment of hypertension
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Jama. - 1538-3598 (Electronic). ; 292:19, s. 2350-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Increased baseline left ventricular (LV) mass predicts cardiovascular (CV) complications of hypertension, but the relation between lower LV mass and outcome during treatment for hypertension is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether reduction of LV mass during antihypertensive treatment modifies risk of major CV events independent of blood pressure change. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort substudy of the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) randomized clinical trial, conducted from 1995 to 2001. A total of 941 prospectively identified patients aged 55 to 80 years with essential hypertension and electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy had LV mass measured by echocardiography at enrollment in the LIFE trial and thereafter were followed up annually for a mean (SD) of 4.8 (1.0) years for CV events. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Composite end point of CV death, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or nonfatal stroke. RESULTS: The composite end point occurred in 104 patients (11%). The multivariable Cox regression model showed a strong association between lower in-treatment LV mass index and reduced rate of the composite CV end point (hazard ratio [HR], 0.78 per 1-SD (25.3) decrease in LV mass index; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-0.94; P = .009) over and above that predicted by reduction in blood pressure. There were parallel associations between lower in-treatment LV mass index and lower CV mortality (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82; P = .001), stroke (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.96; P = .02), myocardial infarction (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.62-1.17, P = .33), and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.88, P = .002), independent of systolic blood pressure and assigned treatment. Results were confirmed in analyses adjusting for additional CV risk factors, electrocardiographic changes, or when only considering events after the first year of study treatment. CONCLUSION: In patients with essential hypertension and baseline electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy, lower LV mass during antihypertensive treatment is associated with lower rates of clinical end points, additional to effects of blood pressure lowering and treatment modality.
  • Devereux, R. B., et al. (författare)
  • Regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy by losartan compared with atenolol: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) trial
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 1524-4539 (Electronic). ; 110:11, s. 1456-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: An echocardiographic substudy of the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) trial was designed to test the ability of losartan to reduce left ventricular (LV) mass more than atenolol. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 960 patients with essential hypertension and LV hypertrophy (LVH) on screening ECG were enrolled at centers in 7 countries and studied by echocardiography at baseline and after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years' randomized therapy. Clinical examination and blinded readings of echocardiograms in 457 losartan-treated and 459 atenolol-treated participants with > or =1 follow-up measurement of LV mass index (LVMI) were used in an intention-to-treat analysis. Losartan-based therapy induced greater reduction in LVMI from baseline to the last available study than atenolol with adjustment for baseline LVMI and blood pressure and in-treatment pressure (-21.7+/-21.8 versus -17.7+/-19.6 g/m2; P=0.021). Greater LVMI reduction with losartan was observed in women and men, participants >65 or <65 years of age, and with mild or more severe baseline hypertrophy. The difference between treatment arms in LVH regression was due mainly to reduced concentricity of LV geometry in both groups and lesser increase in LV internal diameter in losartan-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive treatment with losartan, plus hydrochlorothiazide and other medications when needed for pressure control, resulted in greater LVH regression in patients with ECG LVH than conventional atenolol-based treatment. Thus, angiotensin receptor antagonism by losartan has superior efficacy for reversing LVH, a cardinal manifestation of hypertensive target organ damage.
  • Eriksson, Maria A., et al. (författare)
  • Sex-related differences in the associations between hyperleptinemia, insulin resistance and dysfibrinolysis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis. - Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. - 1473-5733. ; 19:7, s. 625-632
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is associated with insulin resistance and reduced fibrinolytic status - or dysfibrinolysis - in humans. As leptin associates differentially to the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in men and women, we hypothesized that leptin and insulin sensitivity are related to dysfibrinolysis in a sex-dependent manner. Thirty-two men and 40 women were recruited from the Monitoring of trends and determinants in Cardiovascular disease (MONICA) population sample, representing the highest and lowest quartiles of fasting insulin levels. Lipids, fibrinolytic status [plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mass and activity, and tPA-PAI complex], leptin, testosterone and sex-hormone-binding globulin were measured. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the euglycaemic clamp technique. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. Determinants for circulating levels of fibrinolytic factors were explored in a multivariate linear regression analysis. Levels of fibrinolytic variables and estimated insulin sensitivity did not differ between men and women. Leptin was independently associated with reduced fibrinolytic status high PAI-1 activity, low tPA activity, high tPA mass, and high tPA-PAI complex) in men (P<0.001-0.002). In women, fat mass and/or insulin sensitivity were related to these factors (P<0.001-0.03), and leptin only to reduced tPA activity (P = 0.002). Hyperleptinemia, dysfibrinolysis, insulin sensitivity and androgenicity associate differentially in men and women. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 19:625-632 (C) 2008 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Gunnbjornsdottir, M. I., et al. (författare)
  • Obesity and nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux are related to onset of asthma and respiratory symptoms
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Eur Respir J. ; 24:1, s. 116-21.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies have identified obesity as a risk factor for asthma in both children and adults. An increased prevalence of asthma in subjects with gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome has also been reported. The aim of this investigation was to study obesity, nocturnal GOR and snoring as independent risk factors for onset of asthma and respiratory symptoms in a Nordic population. In a 5-10 yr follow-up study of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Estonia, a postal questionnaire was sent to previous respondents. A total of 16,191 participants responded to the questionnaire. Reported onset of asthma, wheeze and night-time symptoms as well as nocturnal GOR and habitual snoring increased in prevalence along with the increase in body mass index (BMI). After adjusting for nocturnal GOR, habitual snoring and other confounders, obesity (BMI >30) remained significantly related to the onset of asthma, wheeze and night-time symptoms. Nocturnal GOR was independently related to the onset of asthma and in addition, both nocturnal GOR and habitual snoring were independently related to onset of wheeze and night-time symptoms. This study adds evidence to an independent relationship between obesity, nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux and habitual snoring and the onset of asthma and respiratory symptoms in adults.
  • Lindemann, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Examestane in advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma: a prospective phase II study by the Nordic Society of Gynecologic Oncology (NSGO)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2407. ; 14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane in patients with advanced, persistent or recurrent endometrial carcinoma. Methods: We performed an open-label one-arm, two-stage, phase II study of 25 mg of oral exemestane in 51 patients with advanced (FIGO stage III-IV) or relapsed endometrioid endometrial cancer. Patients were stratified into subsets of estrogen receptor (ER) positive and ER negative patients. Results: Recruitment to the ER negative group was stopped prematurely after 12 patients due to slow accrual. In the ER positive patients, we observed an overall response rate of 10%, and a lack of progression after 6 months in 35% of the patients. No responses were registered in the ER negative patients, and all had progressive disease within 6 months. For the total group of patients, the median progression free survival (PFS) was 3.1 months (95% CI: 2.0-4.1). In the ER positive patients the median PFS was 3.8 months (95% CI: 0.7-6.9) and in the ER negative patients it was 2.6 months (95% CI: 2.1-3-1). In the ER positive patients the median overall survival (OS) time was 13.3 months (95% CI: 7.7-18.9), in the ER negative patients the corresponding numbers were 6.1 months (95% CI: 4.1-8.2). Treatment with exemestane was well tolerated. Conclusion: Treatment of estrogen positive advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer with exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, resulted in a response rate of 10% and lack of progression after 6 months in 35% of the patients.
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