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1.
  • Giongo, Adriana, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of a chemosynthesis-based community in the western South Atlantic Ocean
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Deep Sea Research Part I. - : Elsevier. - 0967-0637 .- 1879-0119. ; 112, s. 45-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chemosynthetic communities have been described from a variety of deep-sea environments across the world's oceans. They constitute very interesting biological systems in terms of their ecology, evolution and biogeography, and also given their potential as indicators of the presence and abundance of consistent hydrocarbon-based nutritional sources. Up to now such peculiar biotic assemblages have not been reported for the western South Atlantic Ocean, leaving this large region undocumented with respect to the presence, composition and history of such communities. Here we report on the presence of a chemosynthetic community off the coast of southern Brazil, in an area where high-levels of methane and the presence of gas hydrates have been detected. We performed metagenomic analyses of the microbial community present at this site, and also employed molecular approaches to identify components of its benthic fauna. We conducted phylogenetic analyses comparing the components of this assemblage to those found elsewhere in the world, which allowed a historical assessment of the structure and dynamics of these systems. Our results revealed that the microbial community at this site is quite diverse, and contains many components that are very closely related to lineages previously sampled in ecologically similar environments across the globe. Anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaeal groups were found to be very abundant at this site, suggesting that methane is indeed an important source of nutrition for this community. In addition, we document the presence at this site of a vestimentiferan siboglinid polychaete and the bivalve Acharax sp., both of which are typical components of deep-sea chemosynthetic communities. The remarkable similarity in biotic composition between this area and other deep-sea communities across the world supports the interpretation that these assemblages are historically connected across the global oceans, undergoing colonization from distant sites and influenced by local ecological features that select a stereotyped suite of specifically adapted organisms. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Hünemeier, Tábita, et al. (författare)
  • Cultural diversification promotes rapid phenotypic evolution in Xavante Indians
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 109:1, s. 73-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Shifts in social structure and cultural practices can potentially promote unusual combinations of allele frequencies that drive the evolution of genetic and phenotypic novelties during human evolution. These cultural practices act in combination with geographical and linguistic barriers and can promote faster evolutionary changes shaped by gene-culture interactions. However, specific cases indicative of this interaction are scarce. Here we show that quantitative genetic parameters obtained from cephalometric data taken on 1,203 individuals analyzed in combination with genetic, climatic, social, and life-history data belonging to six South Amerindian populations are compatible with a scenario of rapid genetic and phenotypic evolution, probably mediated by cultural shifts. We found that the Xavante experienced a remarkable pace of evolution: the rate of morphological change is far greater than expected for its time of split from their sister group, the Kayapo, which occurred around 1,500 y ago. We also suggest that this rapid differentiation was possible because of strong social-organization differences. Our results demonstrate how human groups deriving from a recent common ancestor can experience variable paces of phenotypic divergence, probably as a response to different cultural or social determinants. We suggest that assembling composite databases involving cultural and biological data will be of key importance to unravel cases of evolution modulated by the cultural environment.
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3.
  • Lopes, Fernando, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-scale matrilineal population structure in the Galapagos fur seal and its implications for conservation management
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Conservation Genetics. - 1566-0621 .- 1572-9737. ; 16:5, s. 1099-1113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Females of many pinniped species generally exhibit strong fine-scale philopatry, but it is unclear over what spatial scale this behavior may translate into genetic population structure. We conducted a population genetic survey in the Galapagos fur seal, Arctocephalus galapagoensis, an endangered pinniped endemic to a small geographic range in the northwest of the Galapagos archipelago. To assess patterns of genetic diversity levels and population differentiation, we analyzed part of the mitochondrial control region (mtDNA) and 18 microsatellites DNA markers. We detected similar levels of genetic diversity to many other pinniped species (h = 0.86, pi = 0.012, A = 7.44) despite severe anthropogenic exploitation in the nineteenth century and recurrent population crashes due to recent climatic perturbations associated with El Nio Southern Oscillation events. We further found remarkably strong fine-scale matrilineal population structure, with 33.9 % of the mtDNA variation being partitioned among colonies separated by as little as 70 km swimming distance. In contrast, population structure inferred from nuclear markers was weak. Our findings provide further evidence that natal philopatry can translate into fine-scale genetic population structure in highly mobile species. We discuss the relevance of our results for the fine-scale conservation management of this species with a very restricted geographic range.
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