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1.
  • Antoniou, Antonis C., et al. (författare)
  • Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Alleles and the Risk of Breast Cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers : Implications for Risk Prediction
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472. ; 70:23, s. 9742-9754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03–1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10−11 − 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. Cancer Res; 70(23); 9742–54. ©2010 AACR.
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2.
  • Arver, Brita, et al. (författare)
  • First BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing implemented in the health care system of Stockholm
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Genetic Testing. - Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1557-7473. ; 5:1, s. 41282-41282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to optimize the criteria for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing and to improve oncogenetic counseling in the Stockholm region. Screening for inherited breast cancer genes is laborious and a majority of tested samples turn out to be negative. The frequencies of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes differ across populations. Between 1997 and 2000, 160 families with breast and/or ovarian cancer were counseled and screened for mutations in the two genes. Twenty-five BRCA1 and two BRCA2 disease-causing mutations were found. Various factors associated with the probability of finding a BRCA1 mutation in the families were estimated. Age of onset in different generations and other malignancies were also studied. Families from our region in which both breast and ovarian cancer occur were likely to carry a BRCA1 mutation (34%). In breast-only cancer families, mutations were found only in those with very early onset. All breast-only cancer families with a mutation had at least one case of onset before 36 years of age and a young median age of onset (< 43 years). Other malignancies than breast and ovarian cancers did not segregate in the BRCA1 families and surveillance for other malignancies is not needed, in general. Decreasing age of onset with successive generations was common and must be taken into account when surveillance options are considered.
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3.
  • Augsten, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Expressing CXCL14 Rely upon NOS1-Derived Nitric Oxide Signaling for Their Tumor-Supporting Properties
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 74:11, s. 2999-3010
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) stimulate tumor growth and metastasis. Signals supporting CAF function are thus emerging as candidate therapeutic targets in the tumor microenvironment. The chemokine CXCL14 is a potent inducer of CAF protumorigenic functions. This study is aimed at learning how the protumoral functions of CXCL14-expressing CAF are maintained. We found that the nitric oxide synthase NOS1 is upregulated in CXCL14-expressing CAF and in fibroblasts stimulated with CXCL14. Induction of Nos1 was associated with oxidative stress and occurred together with activation of NRF2 and HIF1 alpha signaling in CXCL14-expressing CAF. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of NOS1 reduced the growth of CXCL14-expressing fibroblasts along with their ability to promote tumor formation following coinjection with prostate or breast cancer cells. Tumor analysis revealed reduced macrophage infiltration, with NOS1 downregulation in CXCL14-expressing CAF and lymphangiogenesis as a novel component of CXCL14-promoted tumor growth. Collectively, our findings defined key components of a signaling network that maintains the protumoral functions of CXCL14-stimulated CAF, and they identified NOS1 as intervention target for CAF-directed cancer therapy. (C) 2014 AACR.
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4.
  • Augsten, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • CXCL14 is an autocrine growth factor for fibroblasts and acts as a multi-modal stimulator of prostate tumor growth
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 106:9, s. 3414-3419
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study explored the role of secreted fibroblast-derived factors in prostate cancer growth. Analyses of matched normal and tumor tissue revealed up-regulation of CXCL14 in cancer-associated fibroblasts of a majority of prostate cancer. Fibroblasts over-expressing CXCL14 promoted the growth of prostate cancer xenografts, and increased tumor angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that autocrine CXCL14-stimulation of fibroblasts stimulate migration and ERK-dependent proliferation of fibroblasts. CXCL14-stimulation of monocyte migration was also demonstrated. Furthermore, CXCL14-producing fibroblasts, but not recombinant CXCL14, enhanced in vitro proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and in vivo angiogenesis. These studies thus identify CXCL14 as a novel autocrine stimulator of fibroblast growth and migration, with multi-modal tumor-stimulatory activities. In more general terms, our findings suggest autocrine stimulation of fibroblasts as a previously unrecognized mechanism for chemokine-mediated stimulation of tumor growth, and suggest a novel mechanism whereby cancer-associated fibroblasts achieve their pro-tumorigenic phenotype.
5.
  • Carvalho, Marcelo, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of a set of missense, frameshift, and in-frame deletion variants of BRCA1
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Mutation Research. - Elsevier. - 1873-135X. ; 660:1-2, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Germline Mutations that inactivate BRCA1 are responsible for breast and ovarian cancer Susceptibility. one possible outcome of genetic testing for BRCA1 is the finding of a genetic variant of uncertain significance for which there is no information regarding its cancer association. This outcome leads to problems ill risk assessment, Counseling and preventive care. The purpose of the present study was to functionally evaluate seven unclassified Variants of BRCA1 including a genomic deletion that leads to the in-frame loss of exons 16/17 (A exons 16/17) in the mRNA. all insertion that leads to a frameshift and all extended carboxy-terminus (5673insC), and five missense variants (K]487R, S1613C, M16521. Q1826H and V1833M). We analyzed the variants using a functional assay based oil the transcription activation property of BRCA1 combined with Supervised learning computational models. Functional analysis indicated that variants S1613C, Q1826H, and M16521 are likely to be neutral, whereas variants V1833M, A exons 16/17, and 5673insCare likely to represent deleterious variants. In agreement with the functional analysis,the results of the computational analysis also indicated that the latter three variants are likely to be deleterious. Taken together, a combined approach of functional and bioinformatics analysis, Plus Structural modeling, can be utilized to Obtain Valuable information pertaining to the effect of a rare variant oil the structure and function of BRCA1. Such information call, in turn,aid in the classification of BRCA1 variants for which there is a lack of genetic information needed to provide reliable risk assessment. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Catucci, Irene, et al. (författare)
  • Individuals with FANCM biallelic mutations do not develop Fanconi anemia, but show risk for breast cancer, chemotherapy toxicity and may display chromosome fragility
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Genetics in Medicine. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1098-3600. ; 20, s. 452-457
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PurposeMonoallelic germ-line mutations in the BRCA1/FANCS, BRCA2/FANCD1 and PALB2/FANCN genes confer high risk of breast cancer. Biallelic mutations in these genes cause Fanconi anemia (FA), characterized by malformations, bone marrow failure, chromosome fragility, and cancer predisposition (BRCA2/FANCD1 and PALB2/FANCN), or an FA-like disease presenting a phenotype similar to FA but without bone marrow failure (BRCA1/FANCS). FANCM monoallelic mutations have been reported as moderate risk factors for breast cancer, but there are no reports of any clinical phenotype observed in carriers of biallelic mutations.MethodsBreast cancer probands were subjected to mutation analysis by sequencing gene panels or testing DNA damage response genes.ResultsFive cases homozygous for FANCM loss-of-function mutations were identified. They show a heterogeneous phenotype including cancer predisposition, toxicity to chemotherapy, early menopause, and possibly chromosome fragility. Phenotype severity might correlate with mutation position in the gene.ConclusionOur data indicate that biallelic FANCM mutations do not cause classical FA, providing proof that FANCM is not a canonical FA gene. Moreover, our observations support previous findings suggesting that FANCM is a breast cancer-predisposing gene. Mutation testing of FANCM might be considered for individuals with the above-described clinical features.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 24 August 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.123.
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7.
  • Cirenajwis, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular stratification of metastatic melanoma using gene expression profiling: prediction of survival outcome and benefit from molecular targeted therapy.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Oncotarget. - Impact Journals, LLC. - 1949-2553. ; 6:14, s. 12297-12309
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Melanoma is currently divided on a genetic level according to mutational status. However, this classification does not optimally predict prognosis. In prior studies, we have defined gene expression phenotypes (high-immune, pigmentation, proliferative and normal-like), which are predictive of survival outcome as well as informative of biology. Herein, we employed a population-based metastatic melanoma cohort and external cohorts to determine the prognostic and predictive significance of the gene expression phenotypes. We performed expression profiling on 214 cutaneous melanoma tumors and found an increased risk of developing distant metastases in the pigmentation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.05-3.28; P=0.03) and proliferative (HR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.43-5.57; P=0.003) groups as compared to the high-immune response group. Further genetic characterization of melanomas using targeted deep-sequencing revealed similar mutational patterns across these phenotypes. We also used publicly available expression profiling data from melanoma patients treated with targeted or vaccine therapy in order to determine if our signatures predicted therapeutic response. In patients receiving targeted therapy, melanomas resistant to targeted therapy were enriched in the MITF-low proliferative subtype as compared to pre-treatment biopsies (P=0.02). In summary, the melanoma gene expression phenotypes are highly predictive of survival outcome and can further help to discriminate patients responding to targeted therapy.
8.
  • Cox, DavidG, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press (OUP) / Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B. - 0964-6906. ; 20:23, s. 4732-4747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a womans lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription.
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9.
  • Davidsson, Josef, et al. (författare)
  • Tiling resolution array comparative genomic hybridization, expression and methylation analyses of dup(1q) in Burkitt lymphomas and pediatric high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemias reveal clustered near-centromeric breakpoints and overexpression of genes in 1q22-32.3
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 16:18, s. 2215-2225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although gain of 1q occurs in 25% of Burkitt lymphomas (BLs) and 10% of pediatric high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs), little is known about the origin, molecular genetic characteristics and functional outcome of dup(1q) in these disorders. Ten dup(1q)-positive BLs/ALLs were investigated by tiling resolution (32k) array CGH analysis, which revealed that the proximal breakpoints in all cases were near-centromeric, in eight of them clustering within a 1.4 Mb segment in 1q12-21.1. The 1q distal breakpoints were heterogeneous, being more distal in the ALLs than in the BLs. The minimally gained segments in the ALLs and BLs were 57.4 Mb [dup(1)(q22q32.3)] and 35 Mb [dup(1)(q12q25.2)], respectively. Satellite 11 DNA on 1q was not hypomethylated, as ascertained by Southern blot analyses of 15 BLs/ALLs with and without gain of 1q, indicating that aberrant methylation was not involved in the origin of dup(1q), as previously suggested for other neoplasms with 1q rearrangements. Global gene expression analyses revealed that five genes in the minimally 57.4 Mb gained region-B4GALT3, DAP3, RGS16, TMEM183A and UCK2-were significantly overexpressed in dup(1q)-positive ALLs compared with high hyperdiploid ALLs without dup(1q). The DAP3 and UCK2 genes were among the most overexpressed genes in the BL case with gain of 1q investigated. The DAP3 protein has been reported to be highly expressed in invasive glioblastoma multiforme cells, whereas expression of the UCK2 protein has been correlated with sensitivity to anticancer drugs. However, involvement of these genes in dup(1q)-positive ALLs and BLs has previously not been reported.
10.
  • Fernebro, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression profiles relate to SS18/SSX fusion type in synovial sarcoma
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 118:5, s. 1165-1172
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We applied 27k spotted cDNA microarray slides to assess gene expression profiles in 26 samples from 24 patients with synovial sarcomas (SS). The data were analyzed in relation to histopathologic type, cytogenetic aberrations, gene fusion type and development of distant metastases. Supervised analysis based on gene fusion type in 12 SS with SS18/SSXI and 9 with SS18/SSX2 revealed significant differences in gene expression profiles. Among the discriminators were several genes that have previously been found to be upregulated in SS, including AXL, ZIC2, SPAG7, AGRN, FOXC1, NCAM1 and multiple metallothioneins. Histopathology and degree of cytogenetic complexity did not significantly influence expression, whereas a genetic signature that related to development of metastases could be discerned, albeit with a high false-positive rate. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate differentially expressed genes for the 2 major gene fusion variants in SS, SS18/SSX1 and SS18/SSX2, and thereby suggest that these result in different downstream effects. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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