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Sökning: WFRF:(Borg Ake)

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1.
  • Antoniou, Antonis C., et al. (författare)
  • Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Alleles and the Risk of Breast Cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers : Implications for Risk Prediction
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472. ; 70:23, s. 9742-9754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11, and rs10941679 at 5p12, and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03–1.18, P = 0.006 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.19, P = 0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers, and rs6504950 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the 9 polymorphisms investigated, 7 were associated with breast cancer for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, P = 7 × 10−11 − 0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (P = 0.0049, 0.03, respectively). All risk-associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the 7 risk-associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e., between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing breast cancer by age 80, compared with 42% to 50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences might be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. Cancer Res; 70(23); 9742–54. ©2010 AACR.
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2.
  • Cox, DavidG, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press (OUP) / Oxford University Press (OUP): Policy B. - 0964-6906. ; 20:23, s. 4732-4747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a womans lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription.
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3.
  • Davidsson, Josef, et al. (författare)
  • Tiling resolution array comparative genomic hybridization, expression and methylation analyses of dup(1q) in Burkitt lymphomas and pediatric high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemias reveal clustered near-centromeric breakpoints and overexpression of genes in 1q22-32.3
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906. ; 16:18, s. 2215-2225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although gain of 1q occurs in 25% of Burkitt lymphomas (BLs) and 10% of pediatric high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs), little is known about the origin, molecular genetic characteristics and functional outcome of dup(1q) in these disorders. Ten dup(1q)-positive BLs/ALLs were investigated by tiling resolution (32k) array CGH analysis, which revealed that the proximal breakpoints in all cases were near-centromeric, in eight of them clustering within a 1.4 Mb segment in 1q12-21.1. The 1q distal breakpoints were heterogeneous, being more distal in the ALLs than in the BLs. The minimally gained segments in the ALLs and BLs were 57.4 Mb [dup(1)(q22q32.3)] and 35 Mb [dup(1)(q12q25.2)], respectively. Satellite 11 DNA on 1q was not hypomethylated, as ascertained by Southern blot analyses of 15 BLs/ALLs with and without gain of 1q, indicating that aberrant methylation was not involved in the origin of dup(1q), as previously suggested for other neoplasms with 1q rearrangements. Global gene expression analyses revealed that five genes in the minimally 57.4 Mb gained region-B4GALT3, DAP3, RGS16, TMEM183A and UCK2-were significantly overexpressed in dup(1q)-positive ALLs compared with high hyperdiploid ALLs without dup(1q). The DAP3 and UCK2 genes were among the most overexpressed genes in the BL case with gain of 1q investigated. The DAP3 protein has been reported to be highly expressed in invasive glioblastoma multiforme cells, whereas expression of the UCK2 protein has been correlated with sensitivity to anticancer drugs. However, involvement of these genes in dup(1q)-positive ALLs and BLs has previously not been reported.
4.
  • Gunnarsson, Rebeqa, et al. (författare)
  • Screening for copy-number alterations and loss of heterozygosity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia-A comparative study of four differently designed, high resolution microarray platforms.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1045-2257. ; 47:8, s. 697-711
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Screening for gene copy-number alterations (CNAs) has improved by applying genome-wide microarrays, where SNP arrays also allow analysis of loss of heterozygozity (LOH). We here analyzed 10 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) samples using four different high-resolution platforms: BAC arrays (32K), oligonucleotide arrays (185K, Agilent), and two SNP arrays (250K, Affymetrix and 317K, Illumina). Cross-platform comparison revealed 29 concordantly detected CNAs, including known recurrent alterations, which confirmed that all platforms are powerful tools when screening for large aberrations. However, detection of 32 additional regions present in 2-3 platforms illustrated a discrepancy in detection of small CNAs, which often involved reported copy-number variations. LOH analysis using dChip revealed concordance of mainly large regions, but showed numerous, small nonoverlapping regions and LOH escaping detection. Evaluation of baseline variation and copy-number ratio response showed the best performance for the Agilent platform and confirmed the robustness of BAC arrays. Accordingly, these platforms demonstrated a higher degree of platform-specific CNAs. The SNP arrays displayed higher technical variation, although this was compensated by high density of elements. Affymetrix detected a higher degree of CNAs compared to Illumina, while the latter showed a lower noise level and higher detection rate in the LOH analysis. Large-scale studies of genomic aberrations are now feasible, but new tools for LOH analysis are requested.
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5.
  • Holm, Karolina, et al. (författare)
  • Global H3K27 trimethylation and EZH2 abundance in breast tumor subtypes.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Molecular Oncology. - Elsevier. - 1574-7891. ; 6:5, s. 494-506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and its core member enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) mediate the epigenetic gene silencing mark: trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me3). H3K27me3 is characteristic of the chromatin at genes involved in developmental regulation in undifferentiated cells. Overexpression of EZH2 has been found in several cancer types such as breast, prostate, melanoma and bladder cancer. Moreover, overexpression is associated with highly proliferative and aggressive types of breast and prostate tumors. We have analyzed the abundance of EZH2 and H3K27me3 using immunohistochemistry in two large and well-characterized breast tumor data sets encompassing more than 400 tumors. The results have been analyzed in relation to the molecular subtypes of breast tumors (basal-like, luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched and normal-like), as well as in subtypes defined by clinical markers (triple negative, ER+/HER2-/Ki67low, ER+/HER2-/Ki67high and HER2+), and were validated in representative breast cancer cell lines by western blot. We found significantly different expression of both EZH2 and H3K27me3 across all subtypes with high abundance of EZH2 in basal-like, triple negative and HER2-enriched tumors, and high H3K27me3 in luminal A, HER2-enriched and normal-like tumors. Intriguingly, the two markers show an inverse correlation, particularly for the basal-like and triple negative tumors. Consequently, high expression of EZH2 was associated with poor distant disease-free survival whereas high expression of H3K27me3 was associated with better survival. Additionally, none of 182 breast tumors was found to carry a previously described EZH2 mutation affecting Tyr641. Our observation that increased expression of EZH2 does not necessarily correlate with increased abundance of H3K27me3 supports the idea that EZH2 can have effects beyond epigenetic silencing of target genes in breast cancer.
6.
  • Hudson, Thomas J., et al. (författare)
  • International network of cancer genome projects
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 464:7291, s. 993-998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
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7.
  • Johansson, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution genomic profiling of male breast cancer reveals differences hidden behind the similarities with female breast cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 1573-7217. ; 129:3, s. 747-760
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Male breast cancer (MBC) is extremely rare and poorly characterized on the molecular level. Using high-resolution genomic data, we aimed to characterize MBC by genomic imbalances and to compare it with female breast cancer (FBC), and further to investigate whether the genomic profiles hold any prognostic information. Fifty-six fresh frozen MBC tumors were analyzed using high-resolution tiling BAC arrays. Significant regions in common between cases were assessed using Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer (GISTIC) analysis. A publicly available genomic data set of 359 FBC tumors was used for reference purposes. The data revealed a broad pattern of aberrations, confirming that MBC is a heterogeneous tumor type. Genomic gains were more common in MBC than in FBC and often involved whole chromosome arms, while losses of genomic material were less frequent. The most common aberrations were similar between the genders, but high-level amplifications were more common in FBC. We identified two genomic subgroups among MBCs; male-complex and male-simple. The male-complex subgroup displayed striking similarities with the previously reported luminal-complex FBC subgroup, while the male-simple subgroup seems to represent a new subgroup of breast cancer occurring only in men. There are many similarities between FBC and MBC with respect to genomic imbalances, but there are also distinct differences as revealed by high-resolution genomic profiling. MBC can be divided into two comprehensive genomic subgroups, which may be of prognostic value. The male-simple subgroup appears notably different from any genomic subgroup so far defined in FBC.
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8.
  • Lundgren, Katja, et al. (författare)
  • Gene products of chromosome 11q and their association with CCND1 gene amplification and tamoxifen resistance in premenopausal breast cancer.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central. - 1465-5411. ; 10:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The amplification event occurring at chromosome locus 11q13, reported in several different cancers, includes a number of potential oncogenes. We have previously reported amplification of one such oncogene, namely CCND1, to be correlated with an adverse effect of tamoxifen in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Over-expression of cyclin D1 protein, however, confers tamoxifen resistance but not a tamoxifen-induced adverse effect. Potentially, co-amplification of an additional 11q13 gene, with a resulting protein over-expression, is required to cause an agonistic effect. Moreover, during 11q13 amplification a deletion of the distal 11q region has been described. In order to assess the potential impact of the deletion we examined a selected marker for this event. METHOD: Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis was employed to identify and confirm changes in the gene expression of a number of different genes mapping to the 11q chromosomal region, associated with CCND1 amplification. The subsequent protein expression of these candidate genes was then examined in a clinical material of 500 primary breast cancers from premenopausal patients who were randomly assigned to either tamoxifen or no adjuvant treatment. The protein expression was also compared with gene expression data in a subset of 56 breast cancer samples. RESULTS: Cortactin and FADD (Fas-associated death domain) over-expression was linked to CCND1 amplification, determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, but was not associated with a diminished effect of tamoxifen. However, deletion of distal chromosome 11q, defined as downregulation of the marker Chk1 (checkpoint kinase 1), was associated with an impaired tamoxifen response, and interestingly with low proliferative breast cancer of low grade. For Pak1 (p21-activated kinase 1) and cyclin D1 the protein expression corresponded to the gene expression data. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that many 11q13 associated gene products are over-expressed in conjunction with cyclin D1 but not linked to an agonistic effect of tamoxifen. Finally, the deletion of distal 11q, linked to 11q13 amplification, might be an important event affecting breast cancer outcome and tamoxifen response.
9.
  • Martrat, Griselda, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring the link between MORF4L1 and risk of breast cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - Current Science Ltd / BioMed Central. - 1465-5411. ; 13:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Proteins encoded by Fanconi anemia (FA) and/or breast cancer (BrCa) susceptibility genes cooperate in a common DNA damage repair signaling pathway. To gain deeper insight into this pathway and its influence on cancer risk, we searched for novel components through protein physical interaction screens. Methods: Protein physical interactions were screened using the yeast two-hybrid system. Co-affinity purifications and endogenous co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed to corroborate interactions. Biochemical and functional assays in human, mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans models were carried out to characterize pathway components. Thirteen FANCD2-monoubiquitinylation-positive FA cell lines excluded for genetic defects in the downstream pathway components and 300 familial BrCa patients negative for BRCA1/2 mutations were analyzed for genetic mutations. Common genetic variants were genotyped in 9,573 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers for associations with BrCa risk. Results: A previously identified co-purifying protein with PALB2 was identified, MRG15 (MORF4L1 gene). Results in human, mouse and C. elegans models delineate molecular and functional relationships with BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51 and RPA1 that suggest a role for MRG15 in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Mrg15-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts showed moderate sensitivity to g-irradiation relative to controls and reduced formation of Rad51 nuclear foci. Examination of mutants of MRG15 and BRCA2 C. elegans orthologs revealed phenocopy by accumulation of RPA-1 (human RPA1) nuclear foci and aberrant chromosomal compactions in meiotic cells. However, no alterations or mutations were identified for MRG15/MORF4L1 in unclassified FA patients and BrCa familial cases. Finally, no significant associations between common MORF4L1 variants and BrCa risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers were identified: rs7164529, P(trend) = 0.45 and 0.05, P(2df) = 0.51 and 0.14, respectively; and rs10519219, P(trend) = 0.92 and 0.72, P(2df) = 0.76 and 0.07, respectively. Conclusions: While the present study expands on the role of MRG15 in the control of genomic stability, weak associations cannot be ruled out for potential low-penetrance variants at MORF4L1 and BrCa risk among BRCA2 mutation carriers.
10.
  • Peterlongo, Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • Candidate Genetic Modifiers for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 24:1, s. 308-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In this study, we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods: Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n = 3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results: The observed P values of association ranged between 0.005 and 1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion: There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact: Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies.
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