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1.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Cigarette Smoking on Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSEOur aim was to assess the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk of the tumors classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as causally associated with smoking, referred to as tobacco-related cancers (TRC). METHODSThe study population included 441,211 participants (133,018 men and 308,193 women) from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. We investigated 14,563 participants who developed a TRC during an average follow-up of 11 years. The impact of smoking cigarettes on cancer risk was assessed by the population attributable fraction (AF(p)), calculated using the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CI for current and former smokers, plus either the prevalence of smoking among cancer cases or estimates from surveys in representative samples of the population in each country.ResultsThe proportion of all TRC attributable to cigarette smoking was 34.9% (95% CI, 32.5 to 37.4) using the smoking prevalence among cases and 36.2% (95% CI, 33.7 to 38.6) using the smoking prevalence from the population. The AF(p) were above 80% for cancers of the lung and larynx, between 20% and 50% for most respiratory and digestive cancers and tumors from the lower urinary tract, and below 20% for the remaining TRC. CONCLUSIONUsing data on cancer incidence for 2008 and our AF(p) estimates, about 270,000 new cancer diagnoses per year can be considered attributable to cigarette smoking in the eight European countries with available data for both men and women (Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Sweden, Denmark).
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2.
  • Ali, Alaa M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol Consumption and Survival after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Literature-Based Meta-analysis and Collaborative Analysis of Data for 29,239 Cases
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 23:6, s. 934-945
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. Methods: A MEDLINE search to identify studies published up to January 2013 was performed. We combined published estimates of survival time for "moderate drinkers" versus nondrinkers. An analysis of individual participant data using Cox regression was carried out using data from 11 case cohorts. Results: We identified 11 published studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption was not associated with overall survival [HR, 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.05], but there was some evidence of better survival associated with prediagnosis consumption (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73-0.88). Individual data on alcohol consumption for 29,239 cases with 4,839 deaths were available from the 11 case cohorts, all of which had data on estrogen receptor (ER) status. For women with ER-positive disease, there was little evidence that pre-or postdiagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality, with some evidence of a negative association with all-cause mortality. On the basis of a single study, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol intake was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-negative disease. There was no association with prediagnosis intake for women with ER-negative disease. Conclusion: There was little evidence that pre- or post-diagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-positive disease. There was weak evidence that moderate post-diagnosis alcohol intake is associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality in ER-negative disease. Impact: Considering the totality of the evidence, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption is unlikely to have a major adverse effect on the survival of women with breast cancer. (C) 2014 AACR.
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3.
  • Barrdahl, Myrto, et al. (författare)
  • A comprehensive analysis of polymorphic variants in steroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 metabolism and risk of in situ breast cancer : Results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 142:6, s. 1182-1188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We assessed the association between 1,414 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1, and risk of breast cancer in situ (BCIS), with the aim of determining whether any of these were disease specific. This was carried out using 1,062 BCIS cases and 10,126 controls as well as 6,113 invasive breast cancer cases from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Three SNPs showed at least one nominally significant association in homozygous minor versus homozygous major models. ACVR2A-rs2382112 (ORhom=3.05, 95%CI=1.72-5.44, Phom=1.47 × 10-4), MAST2-rs12124649 (ORhom=1.73, 95% CI =1.18-2.54, Phom=5.24 × 10-3), and INSR-rs10500204 (ORhom=1.96, 95% CI=1.44-2.67, Phom=1.68 × 10-5) were associated with increased risk of BCIS; however, only the latter association was significant after correcting for multiple testing. Furthermore, INSR-rs10500204 was more strongly associated with the risk of BCIS than invasive disease in case-only analyses using the homozygous minor versus homozygous major model (ORhom=1.78, 95% CI=1.30-2.44, Phom=3.23 × 10-4). The SNP INSR-rs10500204 is located in an intron of the INSR gene and is likely to affect binding of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. The PML gene is known as a tumor suppressor and growth regulator in cancer. However, it is not clear on what pathway the A-allele of rs10500204 could operate to influence the binding of the protein. Hence, functional studies are warranted to investigate this further.
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4.
  • Borgquist, Signe, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to insulin and volumetric mammographic density : : Observational and genetic associations in the Karma study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-5411. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Long-term insulin exposure has been implicated in breast cancer etiology, but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. The aims of this study were to investigate the association of insulin therapy with mammographic density (MD) as an intermediate phenotype for breast cancer and to assess associations with long-term elevated circulating insulin levels using a genetic score comprising 18 insulin-associated variants. Methods: We used data from the KARolinska MAmmography (Karma) project, a Swedish mammography screening cohort. Insulin-treated patients with type 1 (T1D, n = 122) and type 2 (T2D, n = 237) diabetes were identified through linkage with the Prescribed Drug Register and age-matched to 1771 women without diabetes. We assessed associations with treatment duration and insulin glargine use, and we further examined MD differences using non-insulin-treated T2D patients as an active comparator. MD was measured using a fully automated volumetric method, and analyses were adjusted for multiple potential confounders. Associations with the insulin genetic score were assessed in 9437 study participants without diabetes. Results: Compared with age-matched women without diabetes, insulin-treated T1D patients had greater percent dense (8.7% vs. 11.4%) and absolute dense volumes (59.7 vs. 64.7 cm3), and a smaller absolute nondense volume (615 vs. 491 cm3). Similar associations were observed for insulin-treated T2D, and estimates were not materially different in analyses comparing insulin-treated T2D patients with T2D patients receiving noninsulin glucose-lowering medication. In both T1D and T2D, the magnitude of the association with the absolute dense volume was highest for long-term insulin therapy (≥ 5 years) and the long-acting insulin analog glargine. No consistent evidence of differential associations by insulin treatment duration or type was found for percent dense and absolute nondense volumes. Genetically predicted insulin levels were positively associated with percent dense and absolute dense volumes, but not with the absolute nondense volume (percentage difference [95% CI] per 1-SD increase in insulin genetic score = 0.8 [0.0; 1.6], 0.9 [0.1; 1.8], and 0.1 [- 0.8; 0.9], respectively). Conclusions: The consistency in direction of association for insulin treatment and the insulin genetic score with the absolute dense volume suggest a causal influence of long-term increased insulin exposure on mammographic dense breast tissue.
5.
  • Butt, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic predisposition, parity, age at first childbirth and risk for breast cancer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Research Notes. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1756-0500. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Recent studies have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of breast cancer and parity and age at first childbirth are well established and important risk factors for breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction between these environmental factors and genetic variants on breast cancer risk. Methods: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS) included 17 035 female participants, from which 728 incident breast cancer cases were matched to 1448 controls. The associations between 14 SNPs and breast cancer risk were investigated in different strata of parity and age at first childbirth. A logistic regression analysis for the per allele risk, adjusted for potential confounders yielded odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Six of the previously identified SNPs showed a statistically significant association with breast cancer risk: rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs3803662 (TNRC9), rs12443621 (TNRC9), rs889312 (MAP3K1), rs3817198 (LSP1) and rs2107425 (H19). We could not find any statistically significant interaction between the effects of tested SNPs and parity/age at first childbirth on breast cancer risk after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: The results of this study are in agreement with previous studies of null interactions between tested SNPs and parity/age at first childbirth with regard to breast cancer risk.
6.
  • Fortner, Renée T, et al. (författare)
  • Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers : results from the EPIC cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 140:6, s. 1317-1323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested case–control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we investigated the improvement in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from an existing risk prediction model based on epidemiologic factors. Serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones, metabolic markers, growth factors, adipokines and cytokines were evaluated in a step-wise backward selection process; biomarkers were retained at p < 0.157 indicating improvement in the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Improvement in discrimination was assessed using the C-statistic for all biomarkers alone, and change in C-statistic from addition of biomarkers to preexisting absolute risk estimates. We used internal validation with bootstrapping (1000-fold) to adjust for over-fitting. Adiponectin, estrone, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and triglycerides were selected into the model. After accounting for over-fitting, discrimination was improved by 2.0 percentage points when all evaluated biomarkers were included and 1.7 percentage points in the model including the selected biomarkers. Models including etiologic markers on independent pathways and genetic markers may further improve discrimination.
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7.
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8.
  • Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic telomere length and risk of B-cell lymphoma-Results from the EPIC cohort study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 135:12, s. 2910-2917
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent epidemiological investigations have reported on the association between telomere length (TL) and a number of malignancies, including B-cell lymphoma (BCL). The reported results for BCLs are however inconsistent. We carried out a nested case-control study to determine whether TL is associated with future risk of BCL. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the relative TL (i.e. the ratio of telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number) was measured in mononuclear cell DNA of prediagnostic peripheral blood samples of 464 lymphoma cases and 464 matched controls (median time between blood collection and diagnosis, 4.6 years). Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the association between TL and the risk of developing lymphoma and histologic subtypes. TL was significantly longer in cases compared to controls (p 5 0.01). Multivariable models showed a significantly increased risk of BCL [odds ratio (OR) = 1.66, 1.80 and 3.20 for quartiles 2-4, respectively, p-trend = 0.001], diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (OR = 1.20, 2.48 and 2.36 for quartiles 2-4, respectively, p-trend = 0.03) and follicular lymphoma (FL) (OR = 1.39, 1.90 and 2.69 for quartiles 2-4, respectively, p-trend = 0.02) with increasing TL. This study suggests an association between longer leucocyte TL and increased risk of BCL which was most pronounced for DLBCL and FL.
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9.
  • Kullberg, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Female white-collar workers remain at higher risk of breast cancer after adjustments for individual risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 1351-0711. ; 74:9, s. 652-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The aim was to investigate the variation in risk of breast cancer between occupational groups with a focus on white-collar and blue-collar workers and to investigate to what extent the differences were explained by risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle. Methods Between 1991 and 1996, 14 119 women born between 1923 and 1950 and residents of Malmö, Sweden, were included in this cohort study. Individual data on risk factors (eg, age, parity, age at first child, months of breast feeding per child, hormonal replacement therapy, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, height and body mass index) and occupational history were assessed using a questionnaire. First-time diagnoses of invasive breast cancer were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry up until 31 December 2013. Results A total of 897 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Analyses adjusted for age showed an increased risk for white-collar workers compared with blue-collar workers and indicated higher risks in the occupational categories: professionals, administrative and bookkeeping than among women in sales, transportation, production and service work. This difference was only marginally attenuated after adjustment for an extensive set of risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle. Conclusion Reproductive and lifestyle factors explain only a minor part of the increased risk of breast cancer in white-collar workers. Further studies are needed to investigate the remaining factors for the difference in risk between occupational groups.
10.
  • Kyrø, Cecilie, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-diagnostic polyphenol intake and breast cancer survival: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 1573-7217. ; 154:2, s. 389-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Pre-diagnostic usual diet was assessed using dietary questionnaires, and polyphenol intakes were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. We followed 11,782 breast cancer cases from time of diagnosis until death, end of follow-up or last day of contact. During a median of 6 years, 1482 women died (753 of breast cancer). We related polyphenol intake to all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with time since diagnosis as underlying time and strata for age and country. Among postmenopausal women, an intake of lignans in the highest versus lowest quartile was related to a 28 % lower risk of dying from breast (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 0.72, 95 % CI 0.53; 0.98). In contrast, in premenopausal women, a positive association between lignan intake and all-cause mortality was found (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 1.63, 95 % CI 1.03; 2.57). We found no association for other polyphenol classes. Intake of lignans before breast cancer diagnosis may be related to improved survival among postmenopausal women, but may on the contrary worsen the survival for premenopausal women. This suggests that the role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer survival is complex and may be dependent of menopausal status.
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