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1.
  • Karimi, Mohammad, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Intersubband Quantum Disc-in-Nanowire Photodetectors with Normal-Incidence Response in the Long-Wavelength Infrared
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nano letters (Print). - Washington : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1530-6984 .- 1530-6992. ; 18:1, s. 365-372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Semiconductor nanowires have great potential for realizing broadband photodetectors monolithically integrated with silicon. However, the spectral range of such detectors has so far been limited to selected regions in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. Here, we report on the first intersubband nanowire heterostructure array photodetectors exhibiting a spectrally resolved photoresponse from the visible to long-wavelength infrared. In particular, the infrared response from 3-20 mm is enabled by intersubband transitions in low-bandgap InAsP quantum discs synthesized axially within InP nanowires. The intriguing optical characteristics, including unexpected sensitivity to normal incident radiation, are explained by excitation of the longitudinal component of optical modes in the photonic crystal formed by the nanostructured portion of the detectors. Our results provide a generalizable insight into how broadband nanowire photodetectors may be designed, and how engineered nanowire heterostructures open up new fascinating opportunities for optoelectronics.
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2.
  • Borschel, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • A New Route toward Semiconductor Nanospintronics : Highly Mn-Doped GaAs Nanowires Realized by Ion-Implantation under Dynamic Annealing Conditions
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nano letters (Print). - Washington : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1530-6984 .- 1530-6992. ; 11:9, s. 3935-3940
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on highly Mn-doped GaAs nanowires (NWs) of high crystalline quality fabricated by ion beam implantation, a technique that allows doping concentrations beyond the equilibrium solubility limit. We studied two approaches for the preparation of Mn-doped GaAs NWs: First, ion implantation at room temperature with subsequent annealing resulted in polycrystalline NWs and phase segregation of MnAs and GaAs. The second approach was ion implantation at elevated temperatures. In this case, the single-crystallinity of the GaAs NWs was maintained, and crystalline, highly Mn-doped GaAs NWs were obtained. The electrical resistance of such NWs dropped with increasing temperature (activation energy about 70 meV). Corresponding magnetoresistance measurements showed a decrease at low temperatures, indicating paramagnetism. Our findings suggest possibilities for future applications where dense arrays of GaMnAs nanowires may be used as a new kind of magnetic material system.
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3.
  • Jafari Jam, Reza, et al. (författare)
  • III-V nanowire synthesis by use of electrodeposited gold particles
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nano letters (Print). - Washington, DC : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1530-6984 .- 1530-6992. ; 15:1, s. 134-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Semiconductor nanowires are great candidates for building novel electronic devices. Considering the cost of fabricating such devices, substrate reuse and gold consumption are the main concerns. Here we report on implementation of high throughput gold electrodeposition for selective deposition of metal seed particles in arrays defined by lithography for nanowire synthesis. By use of this method, a reduction in gold consumption by a factor of at least 300 was achieved, as compared to conventional thermal evaporation for the same pattern. Because this method also facilitates substrate reuse, a significantly reduced cost of the final device is expected. We investigate the morphology, crystallography, and optical properties of InP and GaAs nanowires grown from electrodeposited gold seed particles and compare them with the properties of nanowires grown from seed particles defined by thermal evaporation of gold. We find that nanowire synthesis, as well as the material properties of the grown nanowires are comparable and quite independent of the gold deposition technique. On the basis of these results, electrodeposition is proposed as a key technology for large-scale fabrication of nanowire-based devices.
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4.
  • Karimi, Mohammad, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Nanowire photodetectors with embedded quantum heterostructures for infrared detection
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Infrared physics & technology. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 1350-4495 .- 1879-0275. ; 96, s. 209-212
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nanowires offer remarkable opportunities for realizing new optoelectronic devices because of their unique fundamental properties. The ability to engineer nanowire heterostructures with large bandgap variations is particularly interesting for technologically important broadband photodetector applications. Here we report on infrared photodetectors based on arrays of InP nanowires with embedded InAsP quantum discs. We demonstrate a strongly reduced dark current in the detector elements by compensating the unintentional n-doping in the nominal intrinsic region of the InP nanowires by in-situ doping with Zn, a crucial step towards realizing high-performance devices. The optimized array detectors show a broad spectral sensitivity at normal incidence for wavelengths from visible to far-infrared up to 20 μm, promoted by both interband and intersubband transitions. Optical simulations show that the unexpected normal incidence response at long wavelengths is due to non-zero longitudinal modes hosted by the nanowires. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.
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5.
  • Karimi, Mohammad, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Room-temperature InP/InAsP Quantum Discs-in-Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nano letters (Print). - Washington, DC : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1530-6984 .- 1530-6992. ; 17:6, s. 3356-3362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The possibility to engineer nanowire heterostructures with large bandgap variations is particularly interesting for technologically important broadband photodetector applications. Here we report on a combined study of design, fabrication, and optoelectronic properties of infrared photodetectors comprising four million n+–i–n+ InP nanowires periodically ordered in arrays. The nanowires were grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy on InP substrates, with either a single or 20 InAsP quantum discs embedded in the i-segment. By Zn compensation of the residual n-dopants in the i-segment, the room-temperature dark current is strongly suppressed to a level of pA/NW at 1 V bias. The low dark current is manifested in the spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements, which reveal strong photocurrent contributions from the InAsP quantum discs at room temperature with a threshold wavelength of about 2.0 μm and a bias-tunable responsivity reaching 7 A/W@1.38 μm at 2 V bias. Two different processing schemes were implemented to study the effects of radial self-gating in the nanowires induced by the nanowire/SiOx/ITO wrap-gate geometry. Summarized, our results show that properly designed axial InP/InAsP nanowire heterostructures are promising candidates for broadband photodetectors. © 2017 American Chemical Society.
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6.
  • Nowzari, Ali, et al. (författare)
  • A Comparative Study of Absorption in Vertically and Laterally Oriented InP Core–Shell Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nano letters (Print). - Washington : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1530-6984 .- 1530-6992. ; 15:3, s. 1809-1814
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have compared the absorption in InP core-shell nanowire p-i-n junctions in lateral and vertical orientation. Arrays of vertical core-shell nanowires with 400 nm pitch and 280 nm diameter, as well as corresponding lateral single core-shell nanowires, were configured as photovoltaic devices. The photovoltaic characteristics of the samples, measured under 1 sun illumination, showed a higher absorption in lateral single nanowires compared to that in individual vertical nanowires, arranged in arrays with 400 nm pitch. Electromagnetic modeling of the structures confirmed the experimental observations and showed that the absorption in a vertical nanowire in an array depends strongly on the array pitch. The modeling demonstrated that, depending on the array pitch, absorption in a vertical nanowire can be lower or higher than that in a lateral nanowire with equal absorption predicted at a pitch of 510 nm for our nanowire geometry. The technology described in this Letter facilitates quantitative comparison of absorption in laterally and vertically oriented core-shell nanowire p-i-n junctions and can aid in the design, optimization, and performance evaluation of nanowire-based core-shell photovoltaic devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
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7.
  • Berg, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Radial Nanowire Light-Emitting Diodes in the (AlxGa1-x)yIn1-yP Material System
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nano letters (Print). - Washington, DC : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1530-6984 .- 1530-6992. ; 16:1, s. 656-662
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nanowires have the potential to play an important role for next-generation light-emitting diodes. In this work, we present a growth scheme for radial nanowire quantum-well structures in the AlGaInP material system using a GaInP nanowire core as a template for radial growth with GaInP as the active layer for emission and AlGaInP as charge carrier barriers. The different layers were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to ensure lattice-matched radial structures. Furthermore, we evaluated the material composition and heterojunction interface sharpness by scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electro-optical properties were investigated by injection luminescence measurements. The presented results can be a valuable track toward radial nanowire light-emitting diodes in the AlGaInP material system in the red/orange/yellow color spectrum. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
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8.
  • Bi, Zhaoxia, et al. (författare)
  • InN quantum dots on GaN nanowires grown by MOVPE
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physica Status Solici C: Current Topics in Solid State Physics, Vol 11, No 3-4. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1610-1642 .- 1862-6351 .- 1610-1634. ; 11:3-4, s. 421-424
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work, growth of InN quantum dots (QDs) on GaN nanowires (NWs) by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy is demonstrated, illustrating the feasibility to combine 0D and 1D structures for nitride semiconductors. Selective area growth was used to generate arrays of c-oriented GaN NWs using Si3N4 as the mask material. In general, InN QDs tend to form at the NW edges between the m-plane side facets, but the QD growth can also be tuned to the side facets by controlling the growth temperature and the growth rate. TEM characterization reveals that I1-type stacking faults are formed in the QDs and originate from the misfit dislocations at the InN/GaN interface. Photoluminescence measurement at 4 K shows that the peak shifts to high energy with reduced dot size. (C) 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
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9.
  • Conache, Gabriela, et al. (författare)
  • Bias-controlled friction of InAs nanowires on a silicon nitride layer studied by atomic force microscopy
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B Condensed Matter. - College Park, Md. : American Physical Society. - 0163-1829 .- 1095-3795. ; 82:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By studying how nanowires lying on a surface bend when pushed by an atomic force microscopy tip we are able to measure the friction between them and the substrate. Here, we show how the friction between InAs nanowires and an insulating silicon nitride layer varies when a dc voltage is applied to the tip during manipulation. The bias charges the capacitor formed by the wire and the grounded silicon back contact. Electrostatic forces increase the contact pressure and allow us to tune the friction between the wire and the silicon nitride surface. Using nanowires of about 40-70 nm diameter and a few microns in length we have applied biases in the range +12 to -12 V. A monotonic increase of the sliding friction with voltage was observed. This increase in friction with the normal force implies that the mesoscopic nanowire-surface system behaves like a macroscopic contact, despite the nanometer size of the contact in the direction of motion. The demonstrated bias-controlled friction has potential applications in MEMS/NEMS devices.
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10.
  • Jafari Jam, Reza, et al. (författare)
  • Template-assisted vapour-liquid-solid growth of InP nanowires on (001) InP and Si substrates
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nanoscale. - Cambridge : Royal Society of Chemistry. - 2040-3364 .- 2040-3372. ; 12:2, s. 888-894
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the synthesis of vertical InP nanowire arrays on (001) InP and Si substrates using template-assisted vapour-liquid-solid growth. A thick silicon oxide layer was first deposited on the substrates. The samples were then patterned by electron beam lithography and deep dry etching through the oxide layer down to the substrate surface. Gold seed particles were subsequently deposited in the holes of the pattern by the use of pulse electrodeposition. The subsequent growth of nanowires by the vapour-liquid-solid method was guided towards the [001] direction by the patterned oxide template, and displayed a high growth yield with respect to the array of holes in the template. In order to confirm the versatility and robustness of the process, we have also demonstrated guided growth of InP nanowire p-n junctions and InP/InAs/InP nanowire heterostructures on (001) InP substrates. Our results show a promising route to monolithically integrate III-V nanowire heterostructure devices with commercially viable (001) silicon platforms.
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