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1.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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2.
  • Jonsson, E., et al. (författare)
  • A health economic simulation model for the clinical management of osteoporosis
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 29:3, s. 545-555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Summary: The objective was to estimate the burden of osteoporosis in Sweden based on current clinical practice and the cost-effectiveness of improvements in the management of osteoporosis over the clinical management compared to current clinical practice. Results showed that better compliance to treatment guidelines is associated with better projected outcomes and cost-savings. Introduction: The purpose of this study is to estimate the burden of osteoporosis in Sweden based on current clinical practice and the cost-effectiveness of improvements in the management of osteoporosis over the clinical management compared to current clinical practice. Methods: The analysis was carried out using a model that simulates the individual patients considered for pharmacological treatment during 1 year and their projected osteoporosis treatment pathway, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs over their remaining lifetime. All patients regardless of treatment or no treatment were simulated. Information on current management of osteoporosis in terms of patient characteristics and treatment patterns were derived from a Swedish osteoporosis research database based on national registers and patient records. Current (standard) clinical management was compared with alternative scenarios mirroring Swedish treatment guidelines. Results: The national burden in terms of lost QALYs was estimated at 14,993 QALYs and the total economic cost at €776M. Scenario analyses showed that 382–3864 QALYs could be gained at a cost/QALY ranging from cost-saving to €31368, depending on the scenario. The margin of investment, i.e. the maximum amount that could be invested in the healthcare system to achieve these improvements up to the limit of the willingness to pay/QALY, was estimated at €199M on a population level (€3,634/patient). Conclusions: The analysis showed that better compliance to treatment guidelines is associated with better projected outcomes and cost-savings. From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there is also considerable room for investment to achieve these improvements in the management of osteoporosis.
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3.
  • Borgstrom, F., et al. (författare)
  • Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 1433-2965. ; 26:4, s. 1239-1249
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data, especially regarding the long-term clinical outcomes of VAPs, should be conducted.
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4.
  • Lekander, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • The cost-effectiveness of TNF-inhibitors for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Swedish clinical practice
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Health Economics. - : Springer. - 1618-7601. ; 14:6, s. 863-873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of TNF-inhibitors for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Swedish clinical practice, both as a first and second biological treatment, with or without the combination of conventional DMARDs. Further sub-group analysis of etanercept treatment was performed. Patient level data were obtained from three regions of the Swedish Rheumatology Registers. The dataset contained 2,558 patients who had started TNF-inhibitor treatment, 1,049 with etanercept as their first biological treatment. A total of 819 patients had switched to a second TNF-inhibitor, of which 425 to etanercept. A Markov cohort model was used in which health states of disease severity were classified according to HAQ and DAS28. Disease progression and discontinuation rates of TNF-inhibitors were based on the registry and for the comparator on published literature. Mortality, costs and utilities were based on Swedish data. The main analysis had a societal perspective over 20 years and efficacy was measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). TNF-inhibitor treatment was associated with an increase in QALYs and an incremental cost compared to no biological treatment. The cost per QALY gained with the three TNF-inhibitors ranged from a,not sign50,000 to a,not sign120,000, with lower estimates for TNF-inhibitors used in combination with MTX and as a first biologic. At a progression of 0.045 for the comparator, most values remain within the accepted range for cost-effectiveness. These results demonstrate that the cost per QALY for TNF-inhibitors was higher than in previous assessments based on registry data and that the results were sensitive to the HAQ progression of the comparator.
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5.
  • Soreskog, E., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term cost-effectiveness of screening for fracture risk in a UK primary care setting: the SCOOP study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - 0937-941X. ; 31:8, s. 1499-1506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Community-based screening and treatment of women aged 70-85 years at high fracture risk reduced fractures; moreover, the screening programme was cost-saving. The results support a case for a screening programme of fracture risk in older women in the UK. Introduction The SCOOP (screening for prevention of fractures in older women) randomized controlled trial investigated whether community-based screening could reduce fractures in women aged 70-85 years. The objective of this study was to estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of screening for fracture risk in a UK primary care setting compared with usual management, based on the SCOOP study. Methods A health economic Markov model was used to predict the life-time consequences in terms of costs and quality of life of the screening programme compared with the control arm. The model was populated with costs related to drugs, administration and screening intervention derived from the SCOOP study. Fracture risk reduction in the screening arm compared with the usual management arm was derived from SCOOP. Modelled fracture risk corresponded to the risk observed in SCOOP. Results Screening of 1000 patients saved 9 hip fractures and 20 non-hip fractures over the remaining lifetime (mean 14 years) compared with usual management. In total, the screening arm saved costs (286) pound and gained 0.015 QALYs/patient in comparison with usual management arm. Conclusions This analysis suggests that a screening programme of fracture risk in older women in the UK would gain quality of life and life years, and reduce fracture costs to more than offset the cost of running the programme.
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6.
  • Strom, O., et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of alendronate in the treatment of postmenopausal women in 9 European countries - an economic evaluation based on the fracture intervention trial
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 1433-2965. ; 18:8, s. 1047-1061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Treatment with alendronate ( Fosamax (R)) has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of fragility fractures. Cost-effectiveness of treatment was assessed in nine European countries in a Markov model and was generally found to be cost effective in women with a previous spine fracture. Introduction Treatment with alendronate (Fosamax (R)) reduces the risk of osteoporotic fractures at the spine, hip and wrist in women with and without prevalent vertebral fracture. Cost-effectiveness estimates in one country may not be applicable elsewhere due to differences in fracture risks, costs and drug prices. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of treating postmenopausal women with alendronate in nine European countries, comprising Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. Methods A Markov model was populated with data for the nine European populations. Effect of treatment was taken from the Fracture Intervention Trial, which recruited women with low BMD alone or with a prior vertebral fracture. Results The cost per QALY gained of treating postmenopausal women with prior vertebral fractures ranged in the base case from "cost saving" in the Scandinavian countries to Euro 15,000 in Italy. Corresponding estimates for women without prior vertebral fractures ranged from "cost saving" to Euro 40,000. Conclusions In relation to thresholds generally used, the analysis suggests that alendronate is very cost effective in the treatment of women with previous vertebral fracture, and in women without previous vertebral fracture, cost-effectiveness depends on the country setting, discount rates, and chosen monetary thresholds.
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7.
  • Söreskog, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of major osteoporotic fracture after first, second and third fracture in Swedish women aged 50 years and older
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Bone. - : Elsevier. - 8756-3282 .- 1873-2763. ; 134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Osteoporosis affects approximately one in five European women and leads to fragility fractures, which result in poor health, social and economic consequences. Fragility fractures are a strong risk factor for subsequent major osteoporotic fracture (MOF), with risk of MOF being elevated in the 1–2 years following an earlier fracture, a concept described as “imminent risk”. This study examines risk of subsequent MOF in patients with one, two or three prior fractures by age and type of fracture. Methods: In this retrospective, observational cohort study, Swedish women aged ≥50 years with ≥1 any clinical fragility fracture between July 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 were identified from Sweden's National Patient Register. Each patient was age- and sex-matched to three controls without history of fracture. Group 1 women included those with one fragility fracture during the study period; Group 2 included those with two fragility fractures; and Group 3 included those with three fragility fractures. “Index fracture” was defined as the first fracture during the study period for Group 1; the second for Group 2; and the third for Group 3. Patients in each cohort and matched controls were followed for up to 60 months or until subsequent MOF (hip, vertebra, forearm, humerus), death or end of data availability. Results: 231,769 women with at least one fracture were included in the study and therefore constituted Group 1; of these, 39,524 constituted Group 2 and of those, 7656 constituted Group 3. At five years, cumulative incidence of subsequent MOF was higher in patients with a history of fracture as compared to controls (Group 1: 20.7% vs 12.3%; Group 2: 32.0% vs 15.3%). Three-year cumulative incidence for Group 3 was 12.1% (vs 10.7% for controls). After adjusting for baseline covariates, risk of subsequent MOF was highest within 0–24 months following an index fracture, then decreased but remained elevated as compared to controls. Having two prior fractures, vertebral fractures and younger age at time of index fracture were associated with greater relative risk. Conclusions: Women with a history of osteoporotic fracture are at increased risk of subsequent fracture, which is highest during the first 24 months following a fracture. Younger women and those with vertebral fractures are at greatest relative risk, suggesting that treatment should target these patients and be timely enough to impact the period of imminent risk.
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8.
  • Borgström, F., et al. (författare)
  • At what hip fracture risk is it cost-effective to treat? International intervention thresholds for the treatment of osteoporosis
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer. - 1433-2965. ; 17:10, s. 1459-1471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Intervention thresholds (ITs), the 10-year hip fracture risk at which treatment can be considered to be cost-effective, have previously been estimated for Sweden and the UK. Objective: The aim of this study was to provide a Markov cohort model platform for a multinational estimation of thresholds at which intervention becomes cost-effective and to investigate and determine the main factors behind differences in these thresholds between countries. Results and discussion: Intervention thresholds were estimated for Australia, Germany, Japan, Sweden, Spain, the UK and USA using a societal perspective. The model was populated with as much relevant country-specific data as possible. Intervention was assumed to be given for 5 years and to decrease the risk of all osteoporotic fractures by 35%. The societal willingness to pay (WTP) for a quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained was set to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita multiplied by two. In the base case analysis, the 10-year hip fracture probability at which intervention became cost-effective varied across ages and countries. For women starting therapy at an age of 70 years, the IT varied from a hip fracture probability of 5.6% in Japan to 14.7% in Spain. The main factors explaining differences in the IT between countries were the WTP for a QALY gained, fracture-related costs and intervention costs. Conclusion: The ITs presented in this paper are appropriate for use in treatment guidelines that consider health economic aspects, and they can be used in combination with fracture risk prediction algorithms to improve the selection of patients who are suitable for osteoporotic intervention.
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9.
  • Borgström, F, et al. (författare)
  • The cost-effectiveness of risedronate in the UK for the management of osteoporosis using the FRAX(R).
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 21:3, s. 495-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study estimated the cost-effectiveness of risedronate compared to no treatment in UK women using the FRAX algorithm for fracture risk assessment. A Markov cohort model was used to estimate the cost-effectiveness. Risedronate was found cost-effective from the age of 65 years, assuming a willingness to pay for a QALY of pound30,000. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of risedronate for the prevention and treatment in a UK setting using the FRAX(R) algorithm for fracture risk assessment. A further aim was to establish intervention thresholds with risedronate treatment. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness of risedronate was compared to no treatment in post-menopausal women with clinical risk factors for fracture using a Markov cohort model populated with data relevant for the UK. The model incorporated the features of FRAX(R) (the WHO risk assessment tool). The analysis had a health care perspective and quality adjusted life years was used as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: Treatment was cost-effective from the age of 65 years, assuming a willingness to pay for a QALY of pound30,000. Treatment was also cost-effective at all ages in women who had previously sustained a fragility fracture or in women with a parental history of hip fracture with a bone mineral density set at the threshold of osteoporosis. At the pound30,000 threshold value for a QALY, risedronate was on average found to cost-effective below the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fractures of 13.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Risedronate is a cost-effective agent for the treatment of established osteoporosis (osteoporosis and a prior fragility fracture) in women from the age of 50 years and older and above 65 years in women with osteoporosis alone. The results support the treatment recommendations in recent UK guidelines for osteoporosis.
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10.
  • Borgström, F, et al. (författare)
  • The cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate in the UK for the management of osteoporosis.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 21:2, s. 339-49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate was compared to no treatment in UK women using the FRAX algorithm for fracture risk assessment. At a willingness-to-pay of pound 30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), strontium ranelate was generally cost-effective in women with prior fracture at the threshold of osteoporosis from an age of 65 years. INTRODUCTION: The objectives of the study were to estimate the cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate in the UK for the treatment of osteoporosis and to establish intervention thresholds for treatment using the FRAX tool. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate was compared to no treatment in postmenopausal women with clinical risk factors for fracture using a lifetime simulation model based on Markov cohort methodology that incorporated the features of FRAX. RESULTS: At a threshold of pound 30,000 per QALY, strontium ranelate was generally cost-effective in women from an age of 65 years with prior fracture at the threshold of osteoporosis (i.e., a T-score of -2.5 SD) and in women with a prior fracture (and no information on bone mineral density) from the age of 65 years. At a threshold of pound 20,000, strontium ranelate became cost-effective at a 10-year fracture probability of 25.7% and at 16.9% with a threshold of pound 30,000 for a QALY. CONCLUSIONS: Strontium ranelate is a cost-effective agent for the treatment of established osteoporosis in women over the age of 65 years. Cost-effective scenarios were also found for the prevention and treatment of fractures associated with osteoporosis, in younger women with additional clinical risk factors.
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